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Molecular basis for the effects of zinc deficiency on spermatogenesis: An experimental study in the Sprague-dawley rat model.

Omu AE, Al-Azemi MK, Al-Maghrebi M, Mathew CT, Omu FE, Kehinde EO, Anim JT, Oriowo MA, Memon A - Indian J Urol (2015 Jan-Mar)

Bottom Line: The objective of this study is to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of zinc deficiency on spermatogenesis in the Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat.Zinc deficiency is associated with impaired spermatogenesis because of reduced testosterone production, increased oxidative stress and apoptosis.These findings suggest that zinc has a role in male reproduction.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, Kuwait.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The objective of this study is to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of zinc deficiency on spermatogenesis in the Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat.

Materials and methods: Three groups of eight adult male SD rats were maintained for 4 weeks on a normal diet as control, zinc deficient diet and zinc deficient diet with zinc supplementation of 28 mg zinc/kg body weight respectively. Using standard techniques, the following parameters were compared between the three groups of experimental animals at the end of 4 weeks: (a) Serum zinc, magnesium (Mg), copper (Cu), selenium (Se) and cadmium (Cd), (b) serum sex hormones, malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX), (c) interleukin-4 (IL-4), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3 expression in the testes, (d) assessment of apoptosis of testicular cells using electron microscopy and (e) testicular volume and histology using the orchidometer and Johnsen score, respectively.

Results: The zinc deficient group showed a reduction of testicular volume, serum concentrations of Zn, Cu, Se, Mg, SOD, GPX, IL-4, Bcl-2 and testosterone (P < 0.05), as well as increased levels of serum Cd, MDA and tissue TNF-α, Bax, caspase-3 and apoptosis of the germ cells (P < 0.05) compared with control and zinc supplementation groups.

Conclusion: Zinc deficiency is associated with impaired spermatogenesis because of reduced testosterone production, increased oxidative stress and apoptosis. These findings suggest that zinc has a role in male reproduction.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Light microscopy (hematoxylin and eosin staining) of a cross section of the seminiferous tubule (×100) (a) normal seminiferous tubule with spermatogonia near the basement membrane, and spermatocytes, round and elongated spermatid and mature spermatozoa in the lumen after spermiogenesis (release of mature spermatozoa into the lumen). (Johnsen score = 10) (b) normal spermatogenesis as in (a) after zinc supplementation (Johnsen score = 10) (c) scarcity of spermatozoa in the lumen consistent with spermatogenic arrest associated with zinc deficiency (Johnsen score = 6)
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Figure 1: Light microscopy (hematoxylin and eosin staining) of a cross section of the seminiferous tubule (×100) (a) normal seminiferous tubule with spermatogonia near the basement membrane, and spermatocytes, round and elongated spermatid and mature spermatozoa in the lumen after spermiogenesis (release of mature spermatozoa into the lumen). (Johnsen score = 10) (b) normal spermatogenesis as in (a) after zinc supplementation (Johnsen score = 10) (c) scarcity of spermatozoa in the lumen consistent with spermatogenic arrest associated with zinc deficiency (Johnsen score = 6)

Mentions: All results shown are for mean ± SD of three experiments and eight animals per experimental group. There was no unusual attrition (mortality) rate in the three experimental groups of animals including those animals fed zinc deficient diet. Table 1 and Figure 1 show changes in testicular weight and Johnsen score of the three experimental groups of animals. The zinc deficient group of rats had a 42% reduction in testicular volume and weight compared to the zinc supplementation group and the controls (P < 0.02). As shown by the Johnsen scores, zinc deficiency was associated with depressed spermatogenesis compared with control group (P < 0.02) or zinc supplementation group (P < 0.004). Zinc supplementation was associated with remarkable improvement of spermatogenesis (P < 0.05). Figure 1a-c shows the light microscopic appearance of the cross-section of the rat testis outlining the seminiferous tubules and the interstitial connective tissue, with Sertoli cells and the germ cells in stages 1-6 of germ cell maturation. Zinc deficiency was associated with spermatogenic arrest [Figure 1c].


Molecular basis for the effects of zinc deficiency on spermatogenesis: An experimental study in the Sprague-dawley rat model.

Omu AE, Al-Azemi MK, Al-Maghrebi M, Mathew CT, Omu FE, Kehinde EO, Anim JT, Oriowo MA, Memon A - Indian J Urol (2015 Jan-Mar)

Light microscopy (hematoxylin and eosin staining) of a cross section of the seminiferous tubule (×100) (a) normal seminiferous tubule with spermatogonia near the basement membrane, and spermatocytes, round and elongated spermatid and mature spermatozoa in the lumen after spermiogenesis (release of mature spermatozoa into the lumen). (Johnsen score = 10) (b) normal spermatogenesis as in (a) after zinc supplementation (Johnsen score = 10) (c) scarcity of spermatozoa in the lumen consistent with spermatogenic arrest associated with zinc deficiency (Johnsen score = 6)
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4300574&req=5

Figure 1: Light microscopy (hematoxylin and eosin staining) of a cross section of the seminiferous tubule (×100) (a) normal seminiferous tubule with spermatogonia near the basement membrane, and spermatocytes, round and elongated spermatid and mature spermatozoa in the lumen after spermiogenesis (release of mature spermatozoa into the lumen). (Johnsen score = 10) (b) normal spermatogenesis as in (a) after zinc supplementation (Johnsen score = 10) (c) scarcity of spermatozoa in the lumen consistent with spermatogenic arrest associated with zinc deficiency (Johnsen score = 6)
Mentions: All results shown are for mean ± SD of three experiments and eight animals per experimental group. There was no unusual attrition (mortality) rate in the three experimental groups of animals including those animals fed zinc deficient diet. Table 1 and Figure 1 show changes in testicular weight and Johnsen score of the three experimental groups of animals. The zinc deficient group of rats had a 42% reduction in testicular volume and weight compared to the zinc supplementation group and the controls (P < 0.02). As shown by the Johnsen scores, zinc deficiency was associated with depressed spermatogenesis compared with control group (P < 0.02) or zinc supplementation group (P < 0.004). Zinc supplementation was associated with remarkable improvement of spermatogenesis (P < 0.05). Figure 1a-c shows the light microscopic appearance of the cross-section of the rat testis outlining the seminiferous tubules and the interstitial connective tissue, with Sertoli cells and the germ cells in stages 1-6 of germ cell maturation. Zinc deficiency was associated with spermatogenic arrest [Figure 1c].

Bottom Line: The objective of this study is to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of zinc deficiency on spermatogenesis in the Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat.Zinc deficiency is associated with impaired spermatogenesis because of reduced testosterone production, increased oxidative stress and apoptosis.These findings suggest that zinc has a role in male reproduction.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, Kuwait.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The objective of this study is to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of zinc deficiency on spermatogenesis in the Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat.

Materials and methods: Three groups of eight adult male SD rats were maintained for 4 weeks on a normal diet as control, zinc deficient diet and zinc deficient diet with zinc supplementation of 28 mg zinc/kg body weight respectively. Using standard techniques, the following parameters were compared between the three groups of experimental animals at the end of 4 weeks: (a) Serum zinc, magnesium (Mg), copper (Cu), selenium (Se) and cadmium (Cd), (b) serum sex hormones, malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX), (c) interleukin-4 (IL-4), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3 expression in the testes, (d) assessment of apoptosis of testicular cells using electron microscopy and (e) testicular volume and histology using the orchidometer and Johnsen score, respectively.

Results: The zinc deficient group showed a reduction of testicular volume, serum concentrations of Zn, Cu, Se, Mg, SOD, GPX, IL-4, Bcl-2 and testosterone (P < 0.05), as well as increased levels of serum Cd, MDA and tissue TNF-α, Bax, caspase-3 and apoptosis of the germ cells (P < 0.05) compared with control and zinc supplementation groups.

Conclusion: Zinc deficiency is associated with impaired spermatogenesis because of reduced testosterone production, increased oxidative stress and apoptosis. These findings suggest that zinc has a role in male reproduction.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus