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Nanobacteria in the pathogenesis of urolithiasis: Myth or reality?

Abrol N, Panda A, Kekre NS, Devasia A - Indian J Urol (2015 Jan-Mar)

Bottom Line: Stone formation in the urinary tract is a common phenomenon with associated morbidity.The two aspects of nanobacteria that need to be considered include its biological nature and the other merely as mineralo-protein complexes.Though the current literature favors the concept of mineralo-protein particles, further research is needed to clearly define their nature.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Urology, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India.

ABSTRACT
Stone formation in the urinary tract is a common phenomenon with associated morbidity. The exact physicochemical factors responsible for stone formation are not clearly known. Over the past decade considerable interest has been generated in defining the role of nanobacteria in urinary stone formation. A review of the available literature has been carried out to give insights into their nature and outline their role in stone formation. The two aspects of nanobacteria that need to be considered include its biological nature and the other merely as mineralo-protein complexes. Though the current literature favors the concept of mineralo-protein particles, further research is needed to clearly define their nature. Whether living or nonliving, these apatite forming nanoparticles appear to play role in kidney stone formation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Flow chart showing proposed pathway of formation of calcifying nanoparticles and their role in nephrolithiasis
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Figure 1: Flow chart showing proposed pathway of formation of calcifying nanoparticles and their role in nephrolithiasis

Mentions: This is a phenomenon where the presence of inhibitory proteins suppresses apatite nucleation, until inhibitory influences are overcome with time in the presence of excess calcium or phosphate present in culture medium or in body fluids, when mineral–protein complexes precipitate and seed apatite propagation.[49] It is known that serum derived proteins; fetuin, albumin, are the main constituents of CNB. The role of fetuin and to a lesser extent albumin is to inhibit mineralization by binding with ions and making them more soluble.[46] [Figure 1] However, at saturation or at near saturation concentration this inhibition is overcome and fetuin gets precipitated as mineralo-protein complexes.[252649] These apatite nuclei can grow in size and form crystals resembling those seen in Randall's plaques. [Figure 1] Dual inhibitory-seeding concept explains that CNP are formed predominantly by deployment of calcium inhibitory pathways and how inhibitors can act as seeding nuclei in the presence of favorable mineral concentrations.


Nanobacteria in the pathogenesis of urolithiasis: Myth or reality?

Abrol N, Panda A, Kekre NS, Devasia A - Indian J Urol (2015 Jan-Mar)

Flow chart showing proposed pathway of formation of calcifying nanoparticles and their role in nephrolithiasis
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4300568&req=5

Figure 1: Flow chart showing proposed pathway of formation of calcifying nanoparticles and their role in nephrolithiasis
Mentions: This is a phenomenon where the presence of inhibitory proteins suppresses apatite nucleation, until inhibitory influences are overcome with time in the presence of excess calcium or phosphate present in culture medium or in body fluids, when mineral–protein complexes precipitate and seed apatite propagation.[49] It is known that serum derived proteins; fetuin, albumin, are the main constituents of CNB. The role of fetuin and to a lesser extent albumin is to inhibit mineralization by binding with ions and making them more soluble.[46] [Figure 1] However, at saturation or at near saturation concentration this inhibition is overcome and fetuin gets precipitated as mineralo-protein complexes.[252649] These apatite nuclei can grow in size and form crystals resembling those seen in Randall's plaques. [Figure 1] Dual inhibitory-seeding concept explains that CNP are formed predominantly by deployment of calcium inhibitory pathways and how inhibitors can act as seeding nuclei in the presence of favorable mineral concentrations.

Bottom Line: Stone formation in the urinary tract is a common phenomenon with associated morbidity.The two aspects of nanobacteria that need to be considered include its biological nature and the other merely as mineralo-protein complexes.Though the current literature favors the concept of mineralo-protein particles, further research is needed to clearly define their nature.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Urology, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India.

ABSTRACT
Stone formation in the urinary tract is a common phenomenon with associated morbidity. The exact physicochemical factors responsible for stone formation are not clearly known. Over the past decade considerable interest has been generated in defining the role of nanobacteria in urinary stone formation. A review of the available literature has been carried out to give insights into their nature and outline their role in stone formation. The two aspects of nanobacteria that need to be considered include its biological nature and the other merely as mineralo-protein complexes. Though the current literature favors the concept of mineralo-protein particles, further research is needed to clearly define their nature. Whether living or nonliving, these apatite forming nanoparticles appear to play role in kidney stone formation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus