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A comprehensive view of the epigenetic landscape. Part II: Histone post-translational modification, nucleosome level, and chromatin regulation by ncRNAs.

Sadakierska-Chudy A, Filip M - Neurotox Res (2014)

Bottom Line: Epigenetic machinery is involved in various biological processes, including embryonic development, cell differentiation, neurogenesis, and adult cell renewal.In the last few years, it has become clear that the number of players identified in the regulation of chromatin structure and function is still increasing.The present paper provides the current state of knowledge about the role of 16 different histone post-translational modifications, nucleosome positioning, and histone tail clipping in the structure and function of chromatin.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Drug Addiction Pharmacology, Institute of Pharmacology Polish Academy of Sciences, Smetna 12, 31-343, Kraków, Poland, annasc@if-pan.krakow.pl.

ABSTRACT
The complexity of the genome is regulated by epigenetic mechanisms, which act on the level of DNA, histones, and nucleosomes. Epigenetic machinery is involved in various biological processes, including embryonic development, cell differentiation, neurogenesis, and adult cell renewal. In the last few years, it has become clear that the number of players identified in the regulation of chromatin structure and function is still increasing. In addition to well-known phenomena, including DNA methylation and histone modification, new, important elements, including nucleosome mobility, histone tail clipping, and regulatory ncRNA molecules, are being discovered. The present paper provides the current state of knowledge about the role of 16 different histone post-translational modifications, nucleosome positioning, and histone tail clipping in the structure and function of chromatin. We also emphasize the significance of cross-talk among chromatin marks and ncRNAs in epigenetic control.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Effects exerted by ncRNA on the epigenetic regulations. Mature miRNAs after the incorporation into RISC complex bind to the complementary sequence in the 3′-UTR region of target transcript. miRNAs negatively regulate their targets by one of the four ways: (1) mRNA cleavage, (2) translation repression, (3) mRNA deadenylation, and (4) mRNA P-body localization. piRNA associated with PIWI proteins mediated in histone modifications and de novo DNA methylation. lncRNAs guide chromatin-remodeling complexes to specific site and also serve as scaffolds for modifying complexes
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Fig4: Effects exerted by ncRNA on the epigenetic regulations. Mature miRNAs after the incorporation into RISC complex bind to the complementary sequence in the 3′-UTR region of target transcript. miRNAs negatively regulate their targets by one of the four ways: (1) mRNA cleavage, (2) translation repression, (3) mRNA deadenylation, and (4) mRNA P-body localization. piRNA associated with PIWI proteins mediated in histone modifications and de novo DNA methylation. lncRNAs guide chromatin-remodeling complexes to specific site and also serve as scaffolds for modifying complexes

Mentions: The miRNAs are the best known class of short ncRNAs, 19–29 nucleotides in length, that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. The miRNA molecules either cleave or repress translation of target mRNA resulting in decreasing levels of gene expression (Fig. 4). The group of miRNAs involved in epigenetic regulation is called “epi-miRNA” (Iorio et al. 2010). The miRNAs can influence epigenetic phenomena either by directly inhibiting enzymes involved in DNMTs, histone modifications, and chromatin remodeling (Table 5), or by altering the availability of substrates necessary for these enzymatic reactions. New evidence has indicated that small RNAs can play a key role in the paramutation mechanism and thus act as transgenerational signaling molecules.Fig. 4


A comprehensive view of the epigenetic landscape. Part II: Histone post-translational modification, nucleosome level, and chromatin regulation by ncRNAs.

Sadakierska-Chudy A, Filip M - Neurotox Res (2014)

Effects exerted by ncRNA on the epigenetic regulations. Mature miRNAs after the incorporation into RISC complex bind to the complementary sequence in the 3′-UTR region of target transcript. miRNAs negatively regulate their targets by one of the four ways: (1) mRNA cleavage, (2) translation repression, (3) mRNA deadenylation, and (4) mRNA P-body localization. piRNA associated with PIWI proteins mediated in histone modifications and de novo DNA methylation. lncRNAs guide chromatin-remodeling complexes to specific site and also serve as scaffolds for modifying complexes
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4300421&req=5

Fig4: Effects exerted by ncRNA on the epigenetic regulations. Mature miRNAs after the incorporation into RISC complex bind to the complementary sequence in the 3′-UTR region of target transcript. miRNAs negatively regulate their targets by one of the four ways: (1) mRNA cleavage, (2) translation repression, (3) mRNA deadenylation, and (4) mRNA P-body localization. piRNA associated with PIWI proteins mediated in histone modifications and de novo DNA methylation. lncRNAs guide chromatin-remodeling complexes to specific site and also serve as scaffolds for modifying complexes
Mentions: The miRNAs are the best known class of short ncRNAs, 19–29 nucleotides in length, that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. The miRNA molecules either cleave or repress translation of target mRNA resulting in decreasing levels of gene expression (Fig. 4). The group of miRNAs involved in epigenetic regulation is called “epi-miRNA” (Iorio et al. 2010). The miRNAs can influence epigenetic phenomena either by directly inhibiting enzymes involved in DNMTs, histone modifications, and chromatin remodeling (Table 5), or by altering the availability of substrates necessary for these enzymatic reactions. New evidence has indicated that small RNAs can play a key role in the paramutation mechanism and thus act as transgenerational signaling molecules.Fig. 4

Bottom Line: Epigenetic machinery is involved in various biological processes, including embryonic development, cell differentiation, neurogenesis, and adult cell renewal.In the last few years, it has become clear that the number of players identified in the regulation of chromatin structure and function is still increasing.The present paper provides the current state of knowledge about the role of 16 different histone post-translational modifications, nucleosome positioning, and histone tail clipping in the structure and function of chromatin.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Drug Addiction Pharmacology, Institute of Pharmacology Polish Academy of Sciences, Smetna 12, 31-343, Kraków, Poland, annasc@if-pan.krakow.pl.

ABSTRACT
The complexity of the genome is regulated by epigenetic mechanisms, which act on the level of DNA, histones, and nucleosomes. Epigenetic machinery is involved in various biological processes, including embryonic development, cell differentiation, neurogenesis, and adult cell renewal. In the last few years, it has become clear that the number of players identified in the regulation of chromatin structure and function is still increasing. In addition to well-known phenomena, including DNA methylation and histone modification, new, important elements, including nucleosome mobility, histone tail clipping, and regulatory ncRNA molecules, are being discovered. The present paper provides the current state of knowledge about the role of 16 different histone post-translational modifications, nucleosome positioning, and histone tail clipping in the structure and function of chromatin. We also emphasize the significance of cross-talk among chromatin marks and ncRNAs in epigenetic control.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus