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A comprehensive view of the epigenetic landscape. Part II: Histone post-translational modification, nucleosome level, and chromatin regulation by ncRNAs.

Sadakierska-Chudy A, Filip M - Neurotox Res (2014)

Bottom Line: Epigenetic machinery is involved in various biological processes, including embryonic development, cell differentiation, neurogenesis, and adult cell renewal.In the last few years, it has become clear that the number of players identified in the regulation of chromatin structure and function is still increasing.The present paper provides the current state of knowledge about the role of 16 different histone post-translational modifications, nucleosome positioning, and histone tail clipping in the structure and function of chromatin.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Drug Addiction Pharmacology, Institute of Pharmacology Polish Academy of Sciences, Smetna 12, 31-343, Kraków, Poland, annasc@if-pan.krakow.pl.

ABSTRACT
The complexity of the genome is regulated by epigenetic mechanisms, which act on the level of DNA, histones, and nucleosomes. Epigenetic machinery is involved in various biological processes, including embryonic development, cell differentiation, neurogenesis, and adult cell renewal. In the last few years, it has become clear that the number of players identified in the regulation of chromatin structure and function is still increasing. In addition to well-known phenomena, including DNA methylation and histone modification, new, important elements, including nucleosome mobility, histone tail clipping, and regulatory ncRNA molecules, are being discovered. The present paper provides the current state of knowledge about the role of 16 different histone post-translational modifications, nucleosome positioning, and histone tail clipping in the structure and function of chromatin. We also emphasize the significance of cross-talk among chromatin marks and ncRNAs in epigenetic control.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Schematic ncRNAs and chromatin regulatory network. ncRNAs influence different epigenetic events. Regulation involving miRNAs is the best known, particularly interesting is their participation in epigenetic heredity. miRNA-mediated inheritance is provided by the paramutation. Paramutation is an allelic interaction, one allele (called paramutagenic) causes heritable epigenetic changes in the second allele (called paramutable) of the same gene mediated by miRNA or siRNA. lncRNAs are also involved in epigenetic network, one of the first identified was Xist, the master regulator of X chromosome inactivation. Air, Kenq1ot1, Xist—the name of RNA genes
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Fig3: Schematic ncRNAs and chromatin regulatory network. ncRNAs influence different epigenetic events. Regulation involving miRNAs is the best known, particularly interesting is their participation in epigenetic heredity. miRNA-mediated inheritance is provided by the paramutation. Paramutation is an allelic interaction, one allele (called paramutagenic) causes heritable epigenetic changes in the second allele (called paramutable) of the same gene mediated by miRNA or siRNA. lncRNAs are also involved in epigenetic network, one of the first identified was Xist, the master regulator of X chromosome inactivation. Air, Kenq1ot1, Xist—the name of RNA genes

Mentions: An increasing body of evidence suggests that ncRNAs can affect the expression of other genes at the level of transcription or translation and play a role in chromatin regulation via interaction with chromatin-modifying enzymes and transcription factors. Many studies have reported that miRNA, small interfering RNA (siRNA), piRNA lncRNAs, promoter-associated RNAs (paRNAs), centromere repeat-associated small interacting RNAs (crasiRNAs), and telomere-specific small RNAs (tel-sRNAs) are engaged in epigenetic regulation (for a review, see Kaikkonen et al. 2011; van Wolfswinkel and Ketting 2010). Schematic interaction between chromatin and some ncRNAs is depicted in Fig. 3.Fig. 3


A comprehensive view of the epigenetic landscape. Part II: Histone post-translational modification, nucleosome level, and chromatin regulation by ncRNAs.

Sadakierska-Chudy A, Filip M - Neurotox Res (2014)

Schematic ncRNAs and chromatin regulatory network. ncRNAs influence different epigenetic events. Regulation involving miRNAs is the best known, particularly interesting is their participation in epigenetic heredity. miRNA-mediated inheritance is provided by the paramutation. Paramutation is an allelic interaction, one allele (called paramutagenic) causes heritable epigenetic changes in the second allele (called paramutable) of the same gene mediated by miRNA or siRNA. lncRNAs are also involved in epigenetic network, one of the first identified was Xist, the master regulator of X chromosome inactivation. Air, Kenq1ot1, Xist—the name of RNA genes
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4300421&req=5

Fig3: Schematic ncRNAs and chromatin regulatory network. ncRNAs influence different epigenetic events. Regulation involving miRNAs is the best known, particularly interesting is their participation in epigenetic heredity. miRNA-mediated inheritance is provided by the paramutation. Paramutation is an allelic interaction, one allele (called paramutagenic) causes heritable epigenetic changes in the second allele (called paramutable) of the same gene mediated by miRNA or siRNA. lncRNAs are also involved in epigenetic network, one of the first identified was Xist, the master regulator of X chromosome inactivation. Air, Kenq1ot1, Xist—the name of RNA genes
Mentions: An increasing body of evidence suggests that ncRNAs can affect the expression of other genes at the level of transcription or translation and play a role in chromatin regulation via interaction with chromatin-modifying enzymes and transcription factors. Many studies have reported that miRNA, small interfering RNA (siRNA), piRNA lncRNAs, promoter-associated RNAs (paRNAs), centromere repeat-associated small interacting RNAs (crasiRNAs), and telomere-specific small RNAs (tel-sRNAs) are engaged in epigenetic regulation (for a review, see Kaikkonen et al. 2011; van Wolfswinkel and Ketting 2010). Schematic interaction between chromatin and some ncRNAs is depicted in Fig. 3.Fig. 3

Bottom Line: Epigenetic machinery is involved in various biological processes, including embryonic development, cell differentiation, neurogenesis, and adult cell renewal.In the last few years, it has become clear that the number of players identified in the regulation of chromatin structure and function is still increasing.The present paper provides the current state of knowledge about the role of 16 different histone post-translational modifications, nucleosome positioning, and histone tail clipping in the structure and function of chromatin.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Drug Addiction Pharmacology, Institute of Pharmacology Polish Academy of Sciences, Smetna 12, 31-343, Kraków, Poland, annasc@if-pan.krakow.pl.

ABSTRACT
The complexity of the genome is regulated by epigenetic mechanisms, which act on the level of DNA, histones, and nucleosomes. Epigenetic machinery is involved in various biological processes, including embryonic development, cell differentiation, neurogenesis, and adult cell renewal. In the last few years, it has become clear that the number of players identified in the regulation of chromatin structure and function is still increasing. In addition to well-known phenomena, including DNA methylation and histone modification, new, important elements, including nucleosome mobility, histone tail clipping, and regulatory ncRNA molecules, are being discovered. The present paper provides the current state of knowledge about the role of 16 different histone post-translational modifications, nucleosome positioning, and histone tail clipping in the structure and function of chromatin. We also emphasize the significance of cross-talk among chromatin marks and ncRNAs in epigenetic control.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus