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A comprehensive view of the epigenetic landscape. Part II: Histone post-translational modification, nucleosome level, and chromatin regulation by ncRNAs.

Sadakierska-Chudy A, Filip M - Neurotox Res (2014)

Bottom Line: Epigenetic machinery is involved in various biological processes, including embryonic development, cell differentiation, neurogenesis, and adult cell renewal.In the last few years, it has become clear that the number of players identified in the regulation of chromatin structure and function is still increasing.The present paper provides the current state of knowledge about the role of 16 different histone post-translational modifications, nucleosome positioning, and histone tail clipping in the structure and function of chromatin.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Drug Addiction Pharmacology, Institute of Pharmacology Polish Academy of Sciences, Smetna 12, 31-343, Kraków, Poland, annasc@if-pan.krakow.pl.

ABSTRACT
The complexity of the genome is regulated by epigenetic mechanisms, which act on the level of DNA, histones, and nucleosomes. Epigenetic machinery is involved in various biological processes, including embryonic development, cell differentiation, neurogenesis, and adult cell renewal. In the last few years, it has become clear that the number of players identified in the regulation of chromatin structure and function is still increasing. In addition to well-known phenomena, including DNA methylation and histone modification, new, important elements, including nucleosome mobility, histone tail clipping, and regulatory ncRNA molecules, are being discovered. The present paper provides the current state of knowledge about the role of 16 different histone post-translational modifications, nucleosome positioning, and histone tail clipping in the structure and function of chromatin. We also emphasize the significance of cross-talk among chromatin marks and ncRNAs in epigenetic control.

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Protein domains capable of recognizing specific histone modifications. Kac acetylated lysine, Kme methylated lysine, Tph phospotylated threonine, Sph phosphorylated serine, Kprop propionylated lysine, Kbuty butyrylated lysine. For more abbreviations see Table 4
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Fig2: Protein domains capable of recognizing specific histone modifications. Kac acetylated lysine, Kme methylated lysine, Tph phospotylated threonine, Sph phosphorylated serine, Kprop propionylated lysine, Kbuty butyrylated lysine. For more abbreviations see Table 4

Mentions: The list of newly identified histone readers has grown rapidly, given the extensive and complex nature of the chromatin landscape (Table 4). The direct or indirect interactions between “readers” or “writers” are essential for the cross-talk of various chromatin constituents. Different types of protein domains that recognize histone modifications have been identified (Fig. 2).Fig. 2


A comprehensive view of the epigenetic landscape. Part II: Histone post-translational modification, nucleosome level, and chromatin regulation by ncRNAs.

Sadakierska-Chudy A, Filip M - Neurotox Res (2014)

Protein domains capable of recognizing specific histone modifications. Kac acetylated lysine, Kme methylated lysine, Tph phospotylated threonine, Sph phosphorylated serine, Kprop propionylated lysine, Kbuty butyrylated lysine. For more abbreviations see Table 4
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4300421&req=5

Fig2: Protein domains capable of recognizing specific histone modifications. Kac acetylated lysine, Kme methylated lysine, Tph phospotylated threonine, Sph phosphorylated serine, Kprop propionylated lysine, Kbuty butyrylated lysine. For more abbreviations see Table 4
Mentions: The list of newly identified histone readers has grown rapidly, given the extensive and complex nature of the chromatin landscape (Table 4). The direct or indirect interactions between “readers” or “writers” are essential for the cross-talk of various chromatin constituents. Different types of protein domains that recognize histone modifications have been identified (Fig. 2).Fig. 2

Bottom Line: Epigenetic machinery is involved in various biological processes, including embryonic development, cell differentiation, neurogenesis, and adult cell renewal.In the last few years, it has become clear that the number of players identified in the regulation of chromatin structure and function is still increasing.The present paper provides the current state of knowledge about the role of 16 different histone post-translational modifications, nucleosome positioning, and histone tail clipping in the structure and function of chromatin.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Drug Addiction Pharmacology, Institute of Pharmacology Polish Academy of Sciences, Smetna 12, 31-343, Kraków, Poland, annasc@if-pan.krakow.pl.

ABSTRACT
The complexity of the genome is regulated by epigenetic mechanisms, which act on the level of DNA, histones, and nucleosomes. Epigenetic machinery is involved in various biological processes, including embryonic development, cell differentiation, neurogenesis, and adult cell renewal. In the last few years, it has become clear that the number of players identified in the regulation of chromatin structure and function is still increasing. In addition to well-known phenomena, including DNA methylation and histone modification, new, important elements, including nucleosome mobility, histone tail clipping, and regulatory ncRNA molecules, are being discovered. The present paper provides the current state of knowledge about the role of 16 different histone post-translational modifications, nucleosome positioning, and histone tail clipping in the structure and function of chromatin. We also emphasize the significance of cross-talk among chromatin marks and ncRNAs in epigenetic control.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus