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Spinally projecting preproglucagon axons preferentially innervate sympathetic preganglionic neurons.

Llewellyn-Smith IJ, Marina N, Manton RN, Reimann F, Gribble FM, Trapp S - Neuroscience (2014)

Bottom Line: These results show that brainstem PPG neurons innervate spinal autonomic and somatic motor neurons.SPN receive the densest PPG innervation.Brainstem PPG neurons could directly modulate sympathetic outflow through their spinal inputs to SPN or interneurons.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Cardiovascular Medicine, Physiology and Centre for Neuroscience, Flinders University, Bedford Park, SA 5042, Australia.

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YFP-immunoreactive innervation of nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-immunoreactive spinal neurons. Triple immunoperoxidase staining for YFP (black), intraperitoneal FG (black) and NOS (brown) in the IML and CAA. Neurons containing FG-immunoreactivity send axons to the periphery and neurons without FG have axons that stay within the CNS. Hence, FG staining distinguishes between NOS-positive interneurons and NOS-positive SPN. Both NOS-containing SPN and NOS-containing spinal interneurons receive input from YFP-immunoreactive axons. (A and B) In the IML, SPN showing immunoreactivity for NOS (brown) and FG (black puncta within the cytoplasm) receive close appositions (arrows) from black YFP-immunoreactive boutons. A, Montage of 2 micrographs. Scale bars: 20 μm. (C) Similarly in the CAA, black YFP-immunoreactive varicosities closely appose (arrows) neurons that contain both brown NOS- and black FG-immunoreactivity, indicating that they are SPN. Asterisk, Ependymal cells lining the dorsal surface of the central canal are out of focus. Montage of 2 micrographs. Scale bar: 20 μm. (D) In the CAA, a varicosity from a black YFP-positive axon closely apposes (arrow) a brown NOS-positive neuron that lacks FG-immunoreactivity, indicating that it is an interneuron. Nearby neurons (stars) contain black FG-immunoreactive puncta, indicating that they are SPN. The top starred SPN is faintly immunoreactive for NOS. Montage of 5 micrographs. Scale bar: 20 μm. (For interpretation of the references to color in this figure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.)
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f0040: YFP-immunoreactive innervation of nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-immunoreactive spinal neurons. Triple immunoperoxidase staining for YFP (black), intraperitoneal FG (black) and NOS (brown) in the IML and CAA. Neurons containing FG-immunoreactivity send axons to the periphery and neurons without FG have axons that stay within the CNS. Hence, FG staining distinguishes between NOS-positive interneurons and NOS-positive SPN. Both NOS-containing SPN and NOS-containing spinal interneurons receive input from YFP-immunoreactive axons. (A and B) In the IML, SPN showing immunoreactivity for NOS (brown) and FG (black puncta within the cytoplasm) receive close appositions (arrows) from black YFP-immunoreactive boutons. A, Montage of 2 micrographs. Scale bars: 20 μm. (C) Similarly in the CAA, black YFP-immunoreactive varicosities closely appose (arrows) neurons that contain both brown NOS- and black FG-immunoreactivity, indicating that they are SPN. Asterisk, Ependymal cells lining the dorsal surface of the central canal are out of focus. Montage of 2 micrographs. Scale bar: 20 μm. (D) In the CAA, a varicosity from a black YFP-positive axon closely apposes (arrow) a brown NOS-positive neuron that lacks FG-immunoreactivity, indicating that it is an interneuron. Nearby neurons (stars) contain black FG-immunoreactive puncta, indicating that they are SPN. The top starred SPN is faintly immunoreactive for NOS. Montage of 5 micrographs. Scale bar: 20 μm. (For interpretation of the references to color in this figure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.)

Mentions: We have previously shown that in IML and CAA, both SPN and interneurons contain immunoreactivity for NOS, the enzyme that synthesizes nitric oxide (Hinrichs and Llewellyn-Smith, 2009). To determine whether YFP-PPG neurons innervated spinal interneurons as well as SPN, we retrogradely labeled the entire population of SPN via intraperitoneal injections of FG (Anderson and Edwards, 1994) and then used triple immunoperoxidase labeling to localize YFP (black), FG (black) and NOS (brown) in horizontal sections of spinal cord (Fig. 8). Neurons that expressed NOS only were taken to be interneurons whereas those expressing NOS plus FG were presumed to be SPN.


Spinally projecting preproglucagon axons preferentially innervate sympathetic preganglionic neurons.

Llewellyn-Smith IJ, Marina N, Manton RN, Reimann F, Gribble FM, Trapp S - Neuroscience (2014)

YFP-immunoreactive innervation of nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-immunoreactive spinal neurons. Triple immunoperoxidase staining for YFP (black), intraperitoneal FG (black) and NOS (brown) in the IML and CAA. Neurons containing FG-immunoreactivity send axons to the periphery and neurons without FG have axons that stay within the CNS. Hence, FG staining distinguishes between NOS-positive interneurons and NOS-positive SPN. Both NOS-containing SPN and NOS-containing spinal interneurons receive input from YFP-immunoreactive axons. (A and B) In the IML, SPN showing immunoreactivity for NOS (brown) and FG (black puncta within the cytoplasm) receive close appositions (arrows) from black YFP-immunoreactive boutons. A, Montage of 2 micrographs. Scale bars: 20 μm. (C) Similarly in the CAA, black YFP-immunoreactive varicosities closely appose (arrows) neurons that contain both brown NOS- and black FG-immunoreactivity, indicating that they are SPN. Asterisk, Ependymal cells lining the dorsal surface of the central canal are out of focus. Montage of 2 micrographs. Scale bar: 20 μm. (D) In the CAA, a varicosity from a black YFP-positive axon closely apposes (arrow) a brown NOS-positive neuron that lacks FG-immunoreactivity, indicating that it is an interneuron. Nearby neurons (stars) contain black FG-immunoreactive puncta, indicating that they are SPN. The top starred SPN is faintly immunoreactive for NOS. Montage of 5 micrographs. Scale bar: 20 μm. (For interpretation of the references to color in this figure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.)
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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f0040: YFP-immunoreactive innervation of nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-immunoreactive spinal neurons. Triple immunoperoxidase staining for YFP (black), intraperitoneal FG (black) and NOS (brown) in the IML and CAA. Neurons containing FG-immunoreactivity send axons to the periphery and neurons without FG have axons that stay within the CNS. Hence, FG staining distinguishes between NOS-positive interneurons and NOS-positive SPN. Both NOS-containing SPN and NOS-containing spinal interneurons receive input from YFP-immunoreactive axons. (A and B) In the IML, SPN showing immunoreactivity for NOS (brown) and FG (black puncta within the cytoplasm) receive close appositions (arrows) from black YFP-immunoreactive boutons. A, Montage of 2 micrographs. Scale bars: 20 μm. (C) Similarly in the CAA, black YFP-immunoreactive varicosities closely appose (arrows) neurons that contain both brown NOS- and black FG-immunoreactivity, indicating that they are SPN. Asterisk, Ependymal cells lining the dorsal surface of the central canal are out of focus. Montage of 2 micrographs. Scale bar: 20 μm. (D) In the CAA, a varicosity from a black YFP-positive axon closely apposes (arrow) a brown NOS-positive neuron that lacks FG-immunoreactivity, indicating that it is an interneuron. Nearby neurons (stars) contain black FG-immunoreactive puncta, indicating that they are SPN. The top starred SPN is faintly immunoreactive for NOS. Montage of 5 micrographs. Scale bar: 20 μm. (For interpretation of the references to color in this figure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.)
Mentions: We have previously shown that in IML and CAA, both SPN and interneurons contain immunoreactivity for NOS, the enzyme that synthesizes nitric oxide (Hinrichs and Llewellyn-Smith, 2009). To determine whether YFP-PPG neurons innervated spinal interneurons as well as SPN, we retrogradely labeled the entire population of SPN via intraperitoneal injections of FG (Anderson and Edwards, 1994) and then used triple immunoperoxidase labeling to localize YFP (black), FG (black) and NOS (brown) in horizontal sections of spinal cord (Fig. 8). Neurons that expressed NOS only were taken to be interneurons whereas those expressing NOS plus FG were presumed to be SPN.

Bottom Line: These results show that brainstem PPG neurons innervate spinal autonomic and somatic motor neurons.SPN receive the densest PPG innervation.Brainstem PPG neurons could directly modulate sympathetic outflow through their spinal inputs to SPN or interneurons.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Cardiovascular Medicine, Physiology and Centre for Neuroscience, Flinders University, Bedford Park, SA 5042, Australia.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus