Spinally projecting preproglucagon axons preferentially innervate sympathetic preganglionic neurons.
Bottom Line: These results show that brainstem PPG neurons innervate spinal autonomic and somatic motor neurons.SPN receive the densest PPG innervation.Brainstem PPG neurons could directly modulate sympathetic outflow through their spinal inputs to SPN or interneurons.
Affiliation: Cardiovascular Medicine, Physiology and Centre for Neuroscience, Flinders University, Bedford Park, SA 5042, Australia.Show MeSH
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Mentions: We have previously shown that in IML and CAA, both SPN and interneurons contain immunoreactivity for NOS, the enzyme that synthesizes nitric oxide (Hinrichs and Llewellyn-Smith, 2009). To determine whether YFP-PPG neurons innervated spinal interneurons as well as SPN, we retrogradely labeled the entire population of SPN via intraperitoneal injections of FG (Anderson and Edwards, 1994) and then used triple immunoperoxidase labeling to localize YFP (black), FG (black) and NOS (brown) in horizontal sections of spinal cord (Fig. 8). Neurons that expressed NOS only were taken to be interneurons whereas those expressing NOS plus FG were presumed to be SPN.
Affiliation: Cardiovascular Medicine, Physiology and Centre for Neuroscience, Flinders University, Bedford Park, SA 5042, Australia.