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Spinally projecting preproglucagon axons preferentially innervate sympathetic preganglionic neurons.

Llewellyn-Smith IJ, Marina N, Manton RN, Reimann F, Gribble FM, Trapp S - Neuroscience (2014)

Bottom Line: These results show that brainstem PPG neurons innervate spinal autonomic and somatic motor neurons.SPN receive the densest PPG innervation.Brainstem PPG neurons could directly modulate sympathetic outflow through their spinal inputs to SPN or interneurons.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Cardiovascular Medicine, Physiology and Centre for Neuroscience, Flinders University, Bedford Park, SA 5042, Australia.

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Distribution of YFP-PPG axons in thoracic spinal cord. Two-color immunoperoxidase staining for YFP (black) and ChAT (brown) in transverse sections through the thoracic spinal cord. (A–D) In spinal segments T5–6, there is a high density of rostrocaudally running black YFP-immunoreactive axons in the lateral funiculus (LF; C). There are close appositions between black YFP-immunoreactive varicosities and brown ChAT-immunoreactive sympathetic preganglionic neurons (SPN) in the intercalated nucleus (ICN; B) and brown ChAT-immunoreactive somatic motor neurons in the ventral horn (VH; D). A higher magnification image of the cell body indicated by the double arrowheads in A and D is shown in Fig. 7I. (E and F) Brown ChAT-immunoreactive SPN in the intermediolateral cell column (IML) of T3–4 receive close appositions (arrows) from black YFP-immunoreactive varicosities. (G and H) In the central autonomic area (CAA) at T9–10, black YFP-immunoreactive varicosities (black) also form appositions (arrows) on brown ChAT-immunoreactive SPN. cc, central canal. Micrographs in montages: A and E, 5; B, 6; C and D, 3; F & H, 2; G, 4. Scale bars: A and E, 100 μm; C, D and G, 50 μm; B, F and H, 20 μm. (For interpretation of the references to color in this figure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.)
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f0020: Distribution of YFP-PPG axons in thoracic spinal cord. Two-color immunoperoxidase staining for YFP (black) and ChAT (brown) in transverse sections through the thoracic spinal cord. (A–D) In spinal segments T5–6, there is a high density of rostrocaudally running black YFP-immunoreactive axons in the lateral funiculus (LF; C). There are close appositions between black YFP-immunoreactive varicosities and brown ChAT-immunoreactive sympathetic preganglionic neurons (SPN) in the intercalated nucleus (ICN; B) and brown ChAT-immunoreactive somatic motor neurons in the ventral horn (VH; D). A higher magnification image of the cell body indicated by the double arrowheads in A and D is shown in Fig. 7I. (E and F) Brown ChAT-immunoreactive SPN in the intermediolateral cell column (IML) of T3–4 receive close appositions (arrows) from black YFP-immunoreactive varicosities. (G and H) In the central autonomic area (CAA) at T9–10, black YFP-immunoreactive varicosities (black) also form appositions (arrows) on brown ChAT-immunoreactive SPN. cc, central canal. Micrographs in montages: A and E, 5; B, 6; C and D, 3; F & H, 2; G, 4. Scale bars: A and E, 100 μm; C, D and G, 50 μm; B, F and H, 20 μm. (For interpretation of the references to color in this figure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.)

Mentions: Many non-varicose YFP-immunoreactive axons traveled rostrocaudally in white matter tracts (Fig. 4). These axons were most dense in the ventral white commissure and around the ventral median fissure. Non-varicose axons were also common in the lateral and ventral funiculi in rostral thoracic segments. The density of non-varicose axons declined progressively from rostral to caudal segments.


Spinally projecting preproglucagon axons preferentially innervate sympathetic preganglionic neurons.

Llewellyn-Smith IJ, Marina N, Manton RN, Reimann F, Gribble FM, Trapp S - Neuroscience (2014)

Distribution of YFP-PPG axons in thoracic spinal cord. Two-color immunoperoxidase staining for YFP (black) and ChAT (brown) in transverse sections through the thoracic spinal cord. (A–D) In spinal segments T5–6, there is a high density of rostrocaudally running black YFP-immunoreactive axons in the lateral funiculus (LF; C). There are close appositions between black YFP-immunoreactive varicosities and brown ChAT-immunoreactive sympathetic preganglionic neurons (SPN) in the intercalated nucleus (ICN; B) and brown ChAT-immunoreactive somatic motor neurons in the ventral horn (VH; D). A higher magnification image of the cell body indicated by the double arrowheads in A and D is shown in Fig. 7I. (E and F) Brown ChAT-immunoreactive SPN in the intermediolateral cell column (IML) of T3–4 receive close appositions (arrows) from black YFP-immunoreactive varicosities. (G and H) In the central autonomic area (CAA) at T9–10, black YFP-immunoreactive varicosities (black) also form appositions (arrows) on brown ChAT-immunoreactive SPN. cc, central canal. Micrographs in montages: A and E, 5; B, 6; C and D, 3; F & H, 2; G, 4. Scale bars: A and E, 100 μm; C, D and G, 50 μm; B, F and H, 20 μm. (For interpretation of the references to color in this figure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.)
© Copyright Policy - CC BY
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4300405&req=5

f0020: Distribution of YFP-PPG axons in thoracic spinal cord. Two-color immunoperoxidase staining for YFP (black) and ChAT (brown) in transverse sections through the thoracic spinal cord. (A–D) In spinal segments T5–6, there is a high density of rostrocaudally running black YFP-immunoreactive axons in the lateral funiculus (LF; C). There are close appositions between black YFP-immunoreactive varicosities and brown ChAT-immunoreactive sympathetic preganglionic neurons (SPN) in the intercalated nucleus (ICN; B) and brown ChAT-immunoreactive somatic motor neurons in the ventral horn (VH; D). A higher magnification image of the cell body indicated by the double arrowheads in A and D is shown in Fig. 7I. (E and F) Brown ChAT-immunoreactive SPN in the intermediolateral cell column (IML) of T3–4 receive close appositions (arrows) from black YFP-immunoreactive varicosities. (G and H) In the central autonomic area (CAA) at T9–10, black YFP-immunoreactive varicosities (black) also form appositions (arrows) on brown ChAT-immunoreactive SPN. cc, central canal. Micrographs in montages: A and E, 5; B, 6; C and D, 3; F & H, 2; G, 4. Scale bars: A and E, 100 μm; C, D and G, 50 μm; B, F and H, 20 μm. (For interpretation of the references to color in this figure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.)
Mentions: Many non-varicose YFP-immunoreactive axons traveled rostrocaudally in white matter tracts (Fig. 4). These axons were most dense in the ventral white commissure and around the ventral median fissure. Non-varicose axons were also common in the lateral and ventral funiculi in rostral thoracic segments. The density of non-varicose axons declined progressively from rostral to caudal segments.

Bottom Line: These results show that brainstem PPG neurons innervate spinal autonomic and somatic motor neurons.SPN receive the densest PPG innervation.Brainstem PPG neurons could directly modulate sympathetic outflow through their spinal inputs to SPN or interneurons.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Cardiovascular Medicine, Physiology and Centre for Neuroscience, Flinders University, Bedford Park, SA 5042, Australia.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus