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Spinally projecting preproglucagon axons preferentially innervate sympathetic preganglionic neurons.

Llewellyn-Smith IJ, Marina N, Manton RN, Reimann F, Gribble FM, Trapp S - Neuroscience (2014)

Bottom Line: These results show that brainstem PPG neurons innervate spinal autonomic and somatic motor neurons.SPN receive the densest PPG innervation.Brainstem PPG neurons could directly modulate sympathetic outflow through their spinal inputs to SPN or interneurons.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Cardiovascular Medicine, Physiology and Centre for Neuroscience, Flinders University, Bedford Park, SA 5042, Australia.

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Spinal YFP-immunoreactive neurons do not project rostrally. (A) Transverse section single-stained to show FG-immunoreactivity at the center of an FG injection site (star) in thoracic segment T9. Peroxidase reaction product occurs throughout the spinal gray and white matter. Thus, it is highly likely that all axons passing through the injection site have taken up FG. Montage of 6 micrographs. Scale bar = 250 μm. (B) Two-color immunoperoxidase staining for FG (black) and YFP (brown). Four brown YFP-immunoreactive cell bodies in the lumbar enlargement (LE) lack black FG-immunoreactivity, indicating that they do not project rostrally through T9. In contrast, black puncta of FG-immunoreactivity are present in nearby cell bodies (arrows) and in black, varicose axons of undefined neurochemical phenotype. Montage of 3 micrographs. Scale bar = 50 μm. (For interpretation of the references to color in this figure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.)
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f0015: Spinal YFP-immunoreactive neurons do not project rostrally. (A) Transverse section single-stained to show FG-immunoreactivity at the center of an FG injection site (star) in thoracic segment T9. Peroxidase reaction product occurs throughout the spinal gray and white matter. Thus, it is highly likely that all axons passing through the injection site have taken up FG. Montage of 6 micrographs. Scale bar = 250 μm. (B) Two-color immunoperoxidase staining for FG (black) and YFP (brown). Four brown YFP-immunoreactive cell bodies in the lumbar enlargement (LE) lack black FG-immunoreactivity, indicating that they do not project rostrally through T9. In contrast, black puncta of FG-immunoreactivity are present in nearby cell bodies (arrows) and in black, varicose axons of undefined neurochemical phenotype. Montage of 3 micrographs. Scale bar = 50 μm. (For interpretation of the references to color in this figure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.)

Mentions: Spinal injections of the retrograde tracer FG in five mice and subsequent immunoperoxidase processing of cords to detect FG-immunoreactivity allowed us to assess whether spinal YFP-expressing neurons in the LE sent axons to the brain (Fig. 3). The FG injection sites (Fig. 3A) were centered on the IML between segments T8 and T10. FG-immunoreactivity spread throughout the spinal gray and white matter for one to two segments in both rostral and caudal directions. To quantify the proportion of spinal YFP-containing neurons that sent axons through the T9 injection sites, we used double immunoperoxidase staining to localize FG (black) and YFP (brown) in transverse sections from two mice (Fig. 3B) and counted neurons that were single-stained for YFP or double-stained for YFP + FG. We examined 55 YFP-immunoreactive neurons in one mouse and 43 in the other mouse. Although neurons retrogradely labeled with FG lay very near to the YFP-expressing neurons (Fig. 3B), not one of the 98 spinal YFP-immunoreactive neurons that we examined showed immunoreactivity for FG.


Spinally projecting preproglucagon axons preferentially innervate sympathetic preganglionic neurons.

Llewellyn-Smith IJ, Marina N, Manton RN, Reimann F, Gribble FM, Trapp S - Neuroscience (2014)

Spinal YFP-immunoreactive neurons do not project rostrally. (A) Transverse section single-stained to show FG-immunoreactivity at the center of an FG injection site (star) in thoracic segment T9. Peroxidase reaction product occurs throughout the spinal gray and white matter. Thus, it is highly likely that all axons passing through the injection site have taken up FG. Montage of 6 micrographs. Scale bar = 250 μm. (B) Two-color immunoperoxidase staining for FG (black) and YFP (brown). Four brown YFP-immunoreactive cell bodies in the lumbar enlargement (LE) lack black FG-immunoreactivity, indicating that they do not project rostrally through T9. In contrast, black puncta of FG-immunoreactivity are present in nearby cell bodies (arrows) and in black, varicose axons of undefined neurochemical phenotype. Montage of 3 micrographs. Scale bar = 50 μm. (For interpretation of the references to color in this figure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.)
© Copyright Policy - CC BY
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4300405&req=5

f0015: Spinal YFP-immunoreactive neurons do not project rostrally. (A) Transverse section single-stained to show FG-immunoreactivity at the center of an FG injection site (star) in thoracic segment T9. Peroxidase reaction product occurs throughout the spinal gray and white matter. Thus, it is highly likely that all axons passing through the injection site have taken up FG. Montage of 6 micrographs. Scale bar = 250 μm. (B) Two-color immunoperoxidase staining for FG (black) and YFP (brown). Four brown YFP-immunoreactive cell bodies in the lumbar enlargement (LE) lack black FG-immunoreactivity, indicating that they do not project rostrally through T9. In contrast, black puncta of FG-immunoreactivity are present in nearby cell bodies (arrows) and in black, varicose axons of undefined neurochemical phenotype. Montage of 3 micrographs. Scale bar = 50 μm. (For interpretation of the references to color in this figure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.)
Mentions: Spinal injections of the retrograde tracer FG in five mice and subsequent immunoperoxidase processing of cords to detect FG-immunoreactivity allowed us to assess whether spinal YFP-expressing neurons in the LE sent axons to the brain (Fig. 3). The FG injection sites (Fig. 3A) were centered on the IML between segments T8 and T10. FG-immunoreactivity spread throughout the spinal gray and white matter for one to two segments in both rostral and caudal directions. To quantify the proportion of spinal YFP-containing neurons that sent axons through the T9 injection sites, we used double immunoperoxidase staining to localize FG (black) and YFP (brown) in transverse sections from two mice (Fig. 3B) and counted neurons that were single-stained for YFP or double-stained for YFP + FG. We examined 55 YFP-immunoreactive neurons in one mouse and 43 in the other mouse. Although neurons retrogradely labeled with FG lay very near to the YFP-expressing neurons (Fig. 3B), not one of the 98 spinal YFP-immunoreactive neurons that we examined showed immunoreactivity for FG.

Bottom Line: These results show that brainstem PPG neurons innervate spinal autonomic and somatic motor neurons.SPN receive the densest PPG innervation.Brainstem PPG neurons could directly modulate sympathetic outflow through their spinal inputs to SPN or interneurons.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Cardiovascular Medicine, Physiology and Centre for Neuroscience, Flinders University, Bedford Park, SA 5042, Australia.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus