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Spinally projecting preproglucagon axons preferentially innervate sympathetic preganglionic neurons.

Llewellyn-Smith IJ, Marina N, Manton RN, Reimann F, Gribble FM, Trapp S - Neuroscience (2014)

Bottom Line: These results show that brainstem PPG neurons innervate spinal autonomic and somatic motor neurons.SPN receive the densest PPG innervation.Brainstem PPG neurons could directly modulate sympathetic outflow through their spinal inputs to SPN or interneurons.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Cardiovascular Medicine, Physiology and Centre for Neuroscience, Flinders University, Bedford Park, SA 5042, Australia.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Spinally projecting YFP-PPG neurons in the brainstem. Double immunofluorescent staining for YFP (green) and FG (red) in the brainstems of YFP-PPG mice that received injections of FG at spinal segment T9. The NTS (A–A”), the IRT (B–B”) and dorsal midline (C–C”) contain YFP-immunofluorescent neurons (A–C), some of which contain FG-immunoreactivity (A’, B’ and C’). Double labeled neurons are spinally projecting YFP-PPG neurons. A”, B”, C”, merged images of micrographs showing YFP- and FG-immunoreactive neurons in each area. Scale bars: A, B, 100 μm; C, 50 μm. (For interpretation of the references to color in this figure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.)
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f0050: Spinally projecting YFP-PPG neurons in the brainstem. Double immunofluorescent staining for YFP (green) and FG (red) in the brainstems of YFP-PPG mice that received injections of FG at spinal segment T9. The NTS (A–A”), the IRT (B–B”) and dorsal midline (C–C”) contain YFP-immunofluorescent neurons (A–C), some of which contain FG-immunoreactivity (A’, B’ and C’). Double labeled neurons are spinally projecting YFP-PPG neurons. A”, B”, C”, merged images of micrographs showing YFP- and FG-immunoreactive neurons in each area. Scale bars: A, B, 100 μm; C, 50 μm. (For interpretation of the references to color in this figure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.)

Mentions: As reported previously (Llewellyn-Smith et al., 2011, 2013), we observed YFP-immunoreactive cell bodies in the caudal NTS and the medial portion of the IRT and in the midline (Fig. 10). In the caudal NTS, YFP-PPG somata extended from caudal to the caudal tip of the area postrema (AP) to roughly mid-AP level. At the caudal end of their distribution within the NTS, the YFP-PPG neurons were located medially whereas at the rostral end, they were mainly found laterally. Within the IRT, YFP-immunoreactive somata occurred from about mid-AP level to roughly where the NTS moved away from the fourth ventricle in a location that is dorsomedial to the nucleus ambiguus and the A1 cell group. In the midline, a few YFP-immunoreactive somata lay just ventral to the hypoglossal nucleus in the region equivalent to raphé obscurus (Fig. 10).


Spinally projecting preproglucagon axons preferentially innervate sympathetic preganglionic neurons.

Llewellyn-Smith IJ, Marina N, Manton RN, Reimann F, Gribble FM, Trapp S - Neuroscience (2014)

Spinally projecting YFP-PPG neurons in the brainstem. Double immunofluorescent staining for YFP (green) and FG (red) in the brainstems of YFP-PPG mice that received injections of FG at spinal segment T9. The NTS (A–A”), the IRT (B–B”) and dorsal midline (C–C”) contain YFP-immunofluorescent neurons (A–C), some of which contain FG-immunoreactivity (A’, B’ and C’). Double labeled neurons are spinally projecting YFP-PPG neurons. A”, B”, C”, merged images of micrographs showing YFP- and FG-immunoreactive neurons in each area. Scale bars: A, B, 100 μm; C, 50 μm. (For interpretation of the references to color in this figure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.)
© Copyright Policy - CC BY
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4300405&req=5

f0050: Spinally projecting YFP-PPG neurons in the brainstem. Double immunofluorescent staining for YFP (green) and FG (red) in the brainstems of YFP-PPG mice that received injections of FG at spinal segment T9. The NTS (A–A”), the IRT (B–B”) and dorsal midline (C–C”) contain YFP-immunofluorescent neurons (A–C), some of which contain FG-immunoreactivity (A’, B’ and C’). Double labeled neurons are spinally projecting YFP-PPG neurons. A”, B”, C”, merged images of micrographs showing YFP- and FG-immunoreactive neurons in each area. Scale bars: A, B, 100 μm; C, 50 μm. (For interpretation of the references to color in this figure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.)
Mentions: As reported previously (Llewellyn-Smith et al., 2011, 2013), we observed YFP-immunoreactive cell bodies in the caudal NTS and the medial portion of the IRT and in the midline (Fig. 10). In the caudal NTS, YFP-PPG somata extended from caudal to the caudal tip of the area postrema (AP) to roughly mid-AP level. At the caudal end of their distribution within the NTS, the YFP-PPG neurons were located medially whereas at the rostral end, they were mainly found laterally. Within the IRT, YFP-immunoreactive somata occurred from about mid-AP level to roughly where the NTS moved away from the fourth ventricle in a location that is dorsomedial to the nucleus ambiguus and the A1 cell group. In the midline, a few YFP-immunoreactive somata lay just ventral to the hypoglossal nucleus in the region equivalent to raphé obscurus (Fig. 10).

Bottom Line: These results show that brainstem PPG neurons innervate spinal autonomic and somatic motor neurons.SPN receive the densest PPG innervation.Brainstem PPG neurons could directly modulate sympathetic outflow through their spinal inputs to SPN or interneurons.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Cardiovascular Medicine, Physiology and Centre for Neuroscience, Flinders University, Bedford Park, SA 5042, Australia.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus