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Molecular characterization of the apical organ of the anthozoan Nematostella vectensis.

Sinigaglia C, Busengdal H, Lerner A, Oliveri P, Rentzsch F - Dev. Biol. (2014)

Bottom Line: In bilaterians they are characterised by a tuft of long cilia and receptor cells and they are associated with groups of neurons, but their relatively low morphological complexity and dispersed phylogenetic distribution have left their evolutionary relationship unresolved.To provide a foundation for a better understanding of this structure we have characterised the molecular composition of the apical organ of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis.Our study provides a molecular characterization of the apical organ of Nematostella and represents an informative tool for future studies addressing the development, function and evolutionary history of apical organ cells.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Sars Centre for Marine Molecular Biology, University of Bergen, Thormøhlensgt 55, 5008 Bergen, Norway.

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Selected non-ciliary apical organ genes The genes which did not produce any hit against the custom dataset of cilia-related genes are considered as “non-ciliary”. (A-D) Two genes involved in the Wnt signalling pathway were recovered, the Wnt receptor NvFz5/8 (A and B) and the secreted protein NvSRFP1 (C and D). Both genes are expressed in a broader aboral domain at gastrula stage (A and C), then restrict to the most aboral pole of the planula. Aboral endodermal expression is also visible at this stage. (E and F) NvFGF1E is expressed in a relatively small aboral domain at gastrula stage and in a subset of apical organ cells at planula stage. (G and H) A gene orthologous to the E. coli TauD gene was also found. The gene is involved in the catabolism of taurine, an amino acid that has been implicated in metamorphosis. NvTauD is expressed in a ring within the apical organ domain (see aboral view of the planula, in E), demonstrating the existence of different sub-domains within the apical organ domain. The aboral pole is to the left, each gene is identified by the assigned ID and a name, either attributed by the genome annotation, or obtained through a BLAST search. Scale bar=100 µm.
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f0015: Selected non-ciliary apical organ genes The genes which did not produce any hit against the custom dataset of cilia-related genes are considered as “non-ciliary”. (A-D) Two genes involved in the Wnt signalling pathway were recovered, the Wnt receptor NvFz5/8 (A and B) and the secreted protein NvSRFP1 (C and D). Both genes are expressed in a broader aboral domain at gastrula stage (A and C), then restrict to the most aboral pole of the planula. Aboral endodermal expression is also visible at this stage. (E and F) NvFGF1E is expressed in a relatively small aboral domain at gastrula stage and in a subset of apical organ cells at planula stage. (G and H) A gene orthologous to the E. coli TauD gene was also found. The gene is involved in the catabolism of taurine, an amino acid that has been implicated in metamorphosis. NvTauD is expressed in a ring within the apical organ domain (see aboral view of the planula, in E), demonstrating the existence of different sub-domains within the apical organ domain. The aboral pole is to the left, each gene is identified by the assigned ID and a name, either attributed by the genome annotation, or obtained through a BLAST search. Scale bar=100 µm.

Mentions: Regarding the characterized genes, the non-ciliary dataset contained two genes related to the Wnt signalling pathway, which determines the site of gastrulation in bilaterians and cnidarians and is involved in the patterning of the anterior–posterior axis of bilaterians. Both the Wnt receptor NvFrizzled5/8 (ao97) and the putative Wnt antagonist secreted Frizzled-Related protein (NvSFRP1, ao63) are expressed in a broad aboral domain at gastrulation and at highest levels in the apical organ of the planula larvae (Fig. 3A–D), and (Kumburegama et al., 2011)). While the function of the two Fibroblast growth factor genes NvFGFa1 and NvFGFa2 in apical organ development has been described (Rentzsch et al., 2008; Sinigaglia et al., 2013), there are 11 Nematostella FGFs for which expression data are not yet available. We identified NvFGF1e (ao190) (Matus et al., 2007) as an additional apical organ related FGF. NvFGF1e is expressed at the aboral pole from gastrula stage on and its expression at planula stage is restricted to a subset of apical organ cells (Fig. 3E and F).


Molecular characterization of the apical organ of the anthozoan Nematostella vectensis.

Sinigaglia C, Busengdal H, Lerner A, Oliveri P, Rentzsch F - Dev. Biol. (2014)

Selected non-ciliary apical organ genes The genes which did not produce any hit against the custom dataset of cilia-related genes are considered as “non-ciliary”. (A-D) Two genes involved in the Wnt signalling pathway were recovered, the Wnt receptor NvFz5/8 (A and B) and the secreted protein NvSRFP1 (C and D). Both genes are expressed in a broader aboral domain at gastrula stage (A and C), then restrict to the most aboral pole of the planula. Aboral endodermal expression is also visible at this stage. (E and F) NvFGF1E is expressed in a relatively small aboral domain at gastrula stage and in a subset of apical organ cells at planula stage. (G and H) A gene orthologous to the E. coli TauD gene was also found. The gene is involved in the catabolism of taurine, an amino acid that has been implicated in metamorphosis. NvTauD is expressed in a ring within the apical organ domain (see aboral view of the planula, in E), demonstrating the existence of different sub-domains within the apical organ domain. The aboral pole is to the left, each gene is identified by the assigned ID and a name, either attributed by the genome annotation, or obtained through a BLAST search. Scale bar=100 µm.
© Copyright Policy - CC BY
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4300403&req=5

f0015: Selected non-ciliary apical organ genes The genes which did not produce any hit against the custom dataset of cilia-related genes are considered as “non-ciliary”. (A-D) Two genes involved in the Wnt signalling pathway were recovered, the Wnt receptor NvFz5/8 (A and B) and the secreted protein NvSRFP1 (C and D). Both genes are expressed in a broader aboral domain at gastrula stage (A and C), then restrict to the most aboral pole of the planula. Aboral endodermal expression is also visible at this stage. (E and F) NvFGF1E is expressed in a relatively small aboral domain at gastrula stage and in a subset of apical organ cells at planula stage. (G and H) A gene orthologous to the E. coli TauD gene was also found. The gene is involved in the catabolism of taurine, an amino acid that has been implicated in metamorphosis. NvTauD is expressed in a ring within the apical organ domain (see aboral view of the planula, in E), demonstrating the existence of different sub-domains within the apical organ domain. The aboral pole is to the left, each gene is identified by the assigned ID and a name, either attributed by the genome annotation, or obtained through a BLAST search. Scale bar=100 µm.
Mentions: Regarding the characterized genes, the non-ciliary dataset contained two genes related to the Wnt signalling pathway, which determines the site of gastrulation in bilaterians and cnidarians and is involved in the patterning of the anterior–posterior axis of bilaterians. Both the Wnt receptor NvFrizzled5/8 (ao97) and the putative Wnt antagonist secreted Frizzled-Related protein (NvSFRP1, ao63) are expressed in a broad aboral domain at gastrulation and at highest levels in the apical organ of the planula larvae (Fig. 3A–D), and (Kumburegama et al., 2011)). While the function of the two Fibroblast growth factor genes NvFGFa1 and NvFGFa2 in apical organ development has been described (Rentzsch et al., 2008; Sinigaglia et al., 2013), there are 11 Nematostella FGFs for which expression data are not yet available. We identified NvFGF1e (ao190) (Matus et al., 2007) as an additional apical organ related FGF. NvFGF1e is expressed at the aboral pole from gastrula stage on and its expression at planula stage is restricted to a subset of apical organ cells (Fig. 3E and F).

Bottom Line: In bilaterians they are characterised by a tuft of long cilia and receptor cells and they are associated with groups of neurons, but their relatively low morphological complexity and dispersed phylogenetic distribution have left their evolutionary relationship unresolved.To provide a foundation for a better understanding of this structure we have characterised the molecular composition of the apical organ of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis.Our study provides a molecular characterization of the apical organ of Nematostella and represents an informative tool for future studies addressing the development, function and evolutionary history of apical organ cells.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Sars Centre for Marine Molecular Biology, University of Bergen, Thormøhlensgt 55, 5008 Bergen, Norway.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus