Synergistic effects of NOD1 or NOD2 and TLR4 activation on mouse sickness behavior in relation to immune and brain activity markers.
Bottom Line: When given alone, FK565 and MDP had only minor effects.Immunohistochemical visualization of c-Fos in the brain revealed that NOD2 synergism with TLR4 resulted in increased activation of cerebral nuclei relevant to sickness.Our findings demonstrate that the known interactions of NLRs and TLRs at the immune cell level extend to interactions affecting brain function and behavior.
Affiliation: Research Unit of Translational Neurogastroenterology, Institute of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, Medical University of Graz, Universitätsplatz 4, 8010 Graz, Austria. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.Show MeSH
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Mentions: The behavior in the OF was modified by MDP, FK565 and LPS in a compound-, combination- and time-dependent manner (Fig. 4). The OF test was used to assess anxiety-like behavior as deduced from the time spent in the central area and the entries made to the central area of the OF and locomotion as deduced from the traveling distance (Fig. 4). In experiments with the higher dose of LPS (0.83 mg/kg), two-way ANOVA revealed a significant NOD × LPS interaction for the changes in locomotion (F(2,42) = 3.168, p ⩽ 0.05). Post-hoc analysis showed that while the NOD agonists did not impact on locomotion, treatment with LPS (0.83 mg/kg) slightly decreased the traveling distance in the OF (Fig. 4C). Furthermore, combined treatment with MDP (3 mg/kg) + LPS (0.83 mg/kg) or FK565 (0.003 mg/kg) + LPS (0.83 mg/kg) further diminished the distance traveled when compared with LPS alone, or MDP and FK565, respectively (Fig. 4C). The entries made into the center of the field depended on LPS (F(1,42) = 31.001, p < 0.001), while the effect of the NOD agonists and their interaction with LPS did not reach significance (Fig. 4B). The time spent in the central area of the OF was not significantly affected by any of the compounds (Fig. 4A).
Affiliation: Research Unit of Translational Neurogastroenterology, Institute of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, Medical University of Graz, Universitätsplatz 4, 8010 Graz, Austria. Electronic address: email@example.com.