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Interaction between Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis and demographic variables on cognitive function in young to middle-aged adults.

Gale SD, Erickson LD, Brown BL, Hedges DW - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis are widespread diseases that have been associated with cognitive deficits and Alzheimer's disease.In this sample, we found that 31.6 percent of women and 36.2 percent of men of the overall sample had IgG Antibodies against Helicobacter pylori, although the seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori varied with sociodemographic variables.People seropositive for both Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis - both of which appear to be common in the general population - appear to be more susceptible to cognitive deficits than are people seropositive for either Helicobacter pylori and or latent toxoplasmosis alone, suggesting a synergistic effect between these two infectious diseases on cognition in young to middle-aged adults.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah; The Neuroscience Center, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah.

ABSTRACT
Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis are widespread diseases that have been associated with cognitive deficits and Alzheimer's disease. We sought to determine whether interactions between Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis, age, race-ethnicity, educational attainment, economic status, and general health predict cognitive function in young and middle-aged adults. To do so, we used multivariable regression and multivariate models to analyze data obtained from the United States' National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, which can be weighted to represent the US population. In this sample, we found that 31.6 percent of women and 36.2 percent of men of the overall sample had IgG Antibodies against Helicobacter pylori, although the seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori varied with sociodemographic variables. There were no main effects for Helicobacter pylori or latent toxoplasmosis for any of the cognitive measures in models adjusting for age, sex, race-ethnicity, educational attainment, economic standing, and self-rated health predicting cognitive function. However, interactions between Helicobacter pylori and race-ethnicity, educational attainment, latent toxoplasmosis in the fully adjusted models predicted cognitive function. People seropositive for both Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis - both of which appear to be common in the general population - appear to be more susceptible to cognitive deficits than are people seropositive for either Helicobacter pylori and or latent toxoplasmosis alone, suggesting a synergistic effect between these two infectious diseases on cognition in young to middle-aged adults.

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Model-based Prediction of the Serial Digit Learning Test Illustrating the Interaction of Gender and Race-Ethnicity with H. pylori and CagA.Panel A presents model-based predictions (Table 5, Model 1) of the interaction of gender with H. pylori and CagA on the Serial Digit Learning Test (SDL) controlling for latent toxoplasmosis, age, race-ethnicity, PIR, education, health, and hemoglobin. Higher values indicate poorer cognitive function on SDL. Panel B presents model-based predictions (Table 5, Model 2) of the interaction of race-ethnicity with H. pylori and CagA on the Serial Digit Learning Test (SDL) controlling for latent toxoplasmosis, age, gender, PIR, education, health, and hemoglobin. Higher values indicate poorer cognitive function on SDL.
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pone.0116874.g003: Model-based Prediction of the Serial Digit Learning Test Illustrating the Interaction of Gender and Race-Ethnicity with H. pylori and CagA.Panel A presents model-based predictions (Table 5, Model 1) of the interaction of gender with H. pylori and CagA on the Serial Digit Learning Test (SDL) controlling for latent toxoplasmosis, age, race-ethnicity, PIR, education, health, and hemoglobin. Higher values indicate poorer cognitive function on SDL. Panel B presents model-based predictions (Table 5, Model 2) of the interaction of race-ethnicity with H. pylori and CagA on the Serial Digit Learning Test (SDL) controlling for latent toxoplasmosis, age, gender, PIR, education, health, and hemoglobin. Higher values indicate poorer cognitive function on SDL.

Mentions: Table 3 gives an overview of the second stage of analysis, which explores the interactions of H. pylori with latent toxoplasmosis and with the demographic covariates. The first two columns of the table give the results of the multivariate tests. Four of the multivariate tests for interactions of the demographic covariates with H. pylori positive with CagA negative status (gender, F[3,21] = 3.65, p = .029; black race-ethnicity, F[3,21] = 5.14, p = .008; other race-ethnicity, F[3,21] = 6.05, p = .004; education, F[3,21] = 3.50, p = .033) and another four for interactions of the demographic covariates with H. pylori positive with CagA positive status (latent toxoplasmosis, F[3,21] = 4.73, p = .011; age, F[3,21] = 7.19, p = .002; other race-ethnicity, F[3,21] = 3.20, p = .044; education, F[3,21] = 5.43, p = .006) were significant. The remainder of the cells indicate univariate results (interaction coefficients presented in Table 4, Table 5, and Table 6 and plots of interactions in Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3, and Fig. 4). Significant results are indicated by “+” and “–” symbols, representing positive and negative univariate interactions between the column and row variables that accompany significant multivariate tests. For example, the Pos/Pos column under the heading “Dependent Variable 1 SDS” has + in the Latent Toxoplasmosis row, indicating a significant interaction between latent toxoplasmosis and H. pylori positive with CagA positive status for SDS.


Interaction between Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis and demographic variables on cognitive function in young to middle-aged adults.

Gale SD, Erickson LD, Brown BL, Hedges DW - PLoS ONE (2015)

Model-based Prediction of the Serial Digit Learning Test Illustrating the Interaction of Gender and Race-Ethnicity with H. pylori and CagA.Panel A presents model-based predictions (Table 5, Model 1) of the interaction of gender with H. pylori and CagA on the Serial Digit Learning Test (SDL) controlling for latent toxoplasmosis, age, race-ethnicity, PIR, education, health, and hemoglobin. Higher values indicate poorer cognitive function on SDL. Panel B presents model-based predictions (Table 5, Model 2) of the interaction of race-ethnicity with H. pylori and CagA on the Serial Digit Learning Test (SDL) controlling for latent toxoplasmosis, age, gender, PIR, education, health, and hemoglobin. Higher values indicate poorer cognitive function on SDL.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4295891&req=5

pone.0116874.g003: Model-based Prediction of the Serial Digit Learning Test Illustrating the Interaction of Gender and Race-Ethnicity with H. pylori and CagA.Panel A presents model-based predictions (Table 5, Model 1) of the interaction of gender with H. pylori and CagA on the Serial Digit Learning Test (SDL) controlling for latent toxoplasmosis, age, race-ethnicity, PIR, education, health, and hemoglobin. Higher values indicate poorer cognitive function on SDL. Panel B presents model-based predictions (Table 5, Model 2) of the interaction of race-ethnicity with H. pylori and CagA on the Serial Digit Learning Test (SDL) controlling for latent toxoplasmosis, age, gender, PIR, education, health, and hemoglobin. Higher values indicate poorer cognitive function on SDL.
Mentions: Table 3 gives an overview of the second stage of analysis, which explores the interactions of H. pylori with latent toxoplasmosis and with the demographic covariates. The first two columns of the table give the results of the multivariate tests. Four of the multivariate tests for interactions of the demographic covariates with H. pylori positive with CagA negative status (gender, F[3,21] = 3.65, p = .029; black race-ethnicity, F[3,21] = 5.14, p = .008; other race-ethnicity, F[3,21] = 6.05, p = .004; education, F[3,21] = 3.50, p = .033) and another four for interactions of the demographic covariates with H. pylori positive with CagA positive status (latent toxoplasmosis, F[3,21] = 4.73, p = .011; age, F[3,21] = 7.19, p = .002; other race-ethnicity, F[3,21] = 3.20, p = .044; education, F[3,21] = 5.43, p = .006) were significant. The remainder of the cells indicate univariate results (interaction coefficients presented in Table 4, Table 5, and Table 6 and plots of interactions in Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3, and Fig. 4). Significant results are indicated by “+” and “–” symbols, representing positive and negative univariate interactions between the column and row variables that accompany significant multivariate tests. For example, the Pos/Pos column under the heading “Dependent Variable 1 SDS” has + in the Latent Toxoplasmosis row, indicating a significant interaction between latent toxoplasmosis and H. pylori positive with CagA positive status for SDS.

Bottom Line: Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis are widespread diseases that have been associated with cognitive deficits and Alzheimer's disease.In this sample, we found that 31.6 percent of women and 36.2 percent of men of the overall sample had IgG Antibodies against Helicobacter pylori, although the seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori varied with sociodemographic variables.People seropositive for both Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis - both of which appear to be common in the general population - appear to be more susceptible to cognitive deficits than are people seropositive for either Helicobacter pylori and or latent toxoplasmosis alone, suggesting a synergistic effect between these two infectious diseases on cognition in young to middle-aged adults.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah; The Neuroscience Center, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah.

ABSTRACT
Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis are widespread diseases that have been associated with cognitive deficits and Alzheimer's disease. We sought to determine whether interactions between Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis, age, race-ethnicity, educational attainment, economic status, and general health predict cognitive function in young and middle-aged adults. To do so, we used multivariable regression and multivariate models to analyze data obtained from the United States' National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, which can be weighted to represent the US population. In this sample, we found that 31.6 percent of women and 36.2 percent of men of the overall sample had IgG Antibodies against Helicobacter pylori, although the seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori varied with sociodemographic variables. There were no main effects for Helicobacter pylori or latent toxoplasmosis for any of the cognitive measures in models adjusting for age, sex, race-ethnicity, educational attainment, economic standing, and self-rated health predicting cognitive function. However, interactions between Helicobacter pylori and race-ethnicity, educational attainment, latent toxoplasmosis in the fully adjusted models predicted cognitive function. People seropositive for both Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis - both of which appear to be common in the general population - appear to be more susceptible to cognitive deficits than are people seropositive for either Helicobacter pylori and or latent toxoplasmosis alone, suggesting a synergistic effect between these two infectious diseases on cognition in young to middle-aged adults.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus