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The association between breast tissue optical content and mammographic density in pre- and post-menopausal women.

Blackmore KM, Knight JA, Walter J, Lilge L - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Among pre-menopausal women, lipid content was significantly inversely associated with square root transformed PD (β = -0.05, p = 0.0002) and DA (β = -0.05, p = 0.019); water content was significantly positively associated with PD (β = 0.06, p = 0.008).Tissue oxygen saturation was marginally inversely associated with PD (β = -0.03, p = 0.057) but significantly inversely associated with DA (β = -0.10, p = 0.002).Among post-menopausal women lipid and water content were significantly associated (negatively and positively, respectively) with PD (β lipid = -0.08, β water = 0.14, both p<0.0001) and DA (β lipid = -0.10, p<0.0001; β water = 0.11, p = 0.001).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Lunenfeld Tanenbaum Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Princess Margaret Cancer Centre and Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

ABSTRACT
Mammographic density (MD), associated with higher water and lower fat content in the breast, is strongly related to breast cancer risk. Optical attenuation spectroscopy (OS) is a non-imaging method of evaluating breast tissue composition by red and near-infrared light transmitted through the breast that, unlike mammography, does not involve radiation. OS provides information on wavelength dependent light scattering of tissue and on absorption by water, lipid, oxy-, deoxy-hemoglobin. We propose that OS could be an alternative marker of breast cancer risk and that OS breast tissue measures will be associated with MD. In the present analysis, we developed an algorithm to estimate breast tissue composition and light scattering parameters using a spectrally constrained global fitting procedure employing a diffuse light transport model. OS measurements were obtained from 202 pre- and post-menopausal women with normal mammograms. Percent density (PD) and dense area (DA) were measured using Cumulus. The association between OS tissue composition and PD and DA was analyzed using linear regression adjusted for body mass index. Among pre-menopausal women, lipid content was significantly inversely associated with square root transformed PD (β = -0.05, p = 0.0002) and DA (β = -0.05, p = 0.019); water content was significantly positively associated with PD (β = 0.06, p = 0.008). Tissue oxygen saturation was marginally inversely associated with PD (β = -0.03, p = 0.057) but significantly inversely associated with DA (β = -0.10, p = 0.002). Among post-menopausal women lipid and water content were significantly associated (negatively and positively, respectively) with PD (β lipid = -0.08, β water = 0.14, both p<0.0001) and DA (β lipid = -0.10, p<0.0001; β water = 0.11, p = 0.001). The association between OS breast content and PD and DA is consistent with more proliferation in dense tissue of younger women, greater lipid content in low density tissue and higher water content in high density tissue. OS may be useful for assessing physiologic tissue differences related to breast cancer risk, particularly when mammography is not feasible or easily accessible.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Scatterplot showing the final association of OS chromophore measures [lipid%(red square), water%(blue circle), StO2%(green star)] with PD (square root transformed) in pre (top) and post-menopausal women (bottom) adjusted for BMI.
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pone.0115851.g002: Scatterplot showing the final association of OS chromophore measures [lipid%(red square), water%(blue circle), StO2%(green star)] with PD (square root transformed) in pre (top) and post-menopausal women (bottom) adjusted for BMI.

Mentions: In both groups, in the multivariate analysis (Table 4, Fig. 2a and b), BMI and lipid content both remained significantly inversely related to PD and water content was significantly positively associated with PD, with all three variables explaining ~ 65% of the total variation in PD. However, the association between OS lipid and water content and PD was stronger in post-menopausal women. Among post-menopausal women, water content explained the majority of variation in PD (49% versus 5% in pre-menopausal women), while lipid content explained a similar proportion of the variation in PD in both groups (~13–14%). Among pre-menopausal women, StO2 was now only marginally inversely related to PD and BMI explained the majority of the variation in PD, whereas in post-menopausal women it only explained a small proportion (45% versus 3% in post-menopausal women). Once all optical parameters were included in the final model, THC was no longer related to PD in post-menopausal women.


The association between breast tissue optical content and mammographic density in pre- and post-menopausal women.

Blackmore KM, Knight JA, Walter J, Lilge L - PLoS ONE (2015)

Scatterplot showing the final association of OS chromophore measures [lipid%(red square), water%(blue circle), StO2%(green star)] with PD (square root transformed) in pre (top) and post-menopausal women (bottom) adjusted for BMI.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4295879&req=5

pone.0115851.g002: Scatterplot showing the final association of OS chromophore measures [lipid%(red square), water%(blue circle), StO2%(green star)] with PD (square root transformed) in pre (top) and post-menopausal women (bottom) adjusted for BMI.
Mentions: In both groups, in the multivariate analysis (Table 4, Fig. 2a and b), BMI and lipid content both remained significantly inversely related to PD and water content was significantly positively associated with PD, with all three variables explaining ~ 65% of the total variation in PD. However, the association between OS lipid and water content and PD was stronger in post-menopausal women. Among post-menopausal women, water content explained the majority of variation in PD (49% versus 5% in pre-menopausal women), while lipid content explained a similar proportion of the variation in PD in both groups (~13–14%). Among pre-menopausal women, StO2 was now only marginally inversely related to PD and BMI explained the majority of the variation in PD, whereas in post-menopausal women it only explained a small proportion (45% versus 3% in post-menopausal women). Once all optical parameters were included in the final model, THC was no longer related to PD in post-menopausal women.

Bottom Line: Among pre-menopausal women, lipid content was significantly inversely associated with square root transformed PD (β = -0.05, p = 0.0002) and DA (β = -0.05, p = 0.019); water content was significantly positively associated with PD (β = 0.06, p = 0.008).Tissue oxygen saturation was marginally inversely associated with PD (β = -0.03, p = 0.057) but significantly inversely associated with DA (β = -0.10, p = 0.002).Among post-menopausal women lipid and water content were significantly associated (negatively and positively, respectively) with PD (β lipid = -0.08, β water = 0.14, both p<0.0001) and DA (β lipid = -0.10, p<0.0001; β water = 0.11, p = 0.001).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Lunenfeld Tanenbaum Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Princess Margaret Cancer Centre and Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

ABSTRACT
Mammographic density (MD), associated with higher water and lower fat content in the breast, is strongly related to breast cancer risk. Optical attenuation spectroscopy (OS) is a non-imaging method of evaluating breast tissue composition by red and near-infrared light transmitted through the breast that, unlike mammography, does not involve radiation. OS provides information on wavelength dependent light scattering of tissue and on absorption by water, lipid, oxy-, deoxy-hemoglobin. We propose that OS could be an alternative marker of breast cancer risk and that OS breast tissue measures will be associated with MD. In the present analysis, we developed an algorithm to estimate breast tissue composition and light scattering parameters using a spectrally constrained global fitting procedure employing a diffuse light transport model. OS measurements were obtained from 202 pre- and post-menopausal women with normal mammograms. Percent density (PD) and dense area (DA) were measured using Cumulus. The association between OS tissue composition and PD and DA was analyzed using linear regression adjusted for body mass index. Among pre-menopausal women, lipid content was significantly inversely associated with square root transformed PD (β = -0.05, p = 0.0002) and DA (β = -0.05, p = 0.019); water content was significantly positively associated with PD (β = 0.06, p = 0.008). Tissue oxygen saturation was marginally inversely associated with PD (β = -0.03, p = 0.057) but significantly inversely associated with DA (β = -0.10, p = 0.002). Among post-menopausal women lipid and water content were significantly associated (negatively and positively, respectively) with PD (β lipid = -0.08, β water = 0.14, both p<0.0001) and DA (β lipid = -0.10, p<0.0001; β water = 0.11, p = 0.001). The association between OS breast content and PD and DA is consistent with more proliferation in dense tissue of younger women, greater lipid content in low density tissue and higher water content in high density tissue. OS may be useful for assessing physiologic tissue differences related to breast cancer risk, particularly when mammography is not feasible or easily accessible.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus