Limits...
Deep sequencing of the murine olfactory receptor neuron transcriptome.

Kanageswaran N, Demond M, Nagel M, Schreiner BS, Baumgart S, Scholz P, Altmüller J, Becker C, Doerner JF, Conrad H, Oberland S, Wetzel CH, Neuhaus EM, Hatt H, Gisselmann G - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: In OE samples, nearly all OR and trace amine-associated receptor (TAAR) genes involved in the perception of volatile amines were detectably expressed.To identify OE-specific genes, we compared olfactory neuron expression profiles with RNA-Seq transcriptome data from different murine tissues.We also identified other previously undescribed membrane proteins as potential new players in olfaction.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Ruhr-University Bochum, Department of Cell Physiology, Bochum, Germany.

ABSTRACT
The ability of animals to sense and differentiate among thousands of odorants relies on a large set of olfactory receptors (OR) and a multitude of accessory proteins within the olfactory epithelium (OE). ORs and related signaling mechanisms have been the subject of intensive studies over the past years, but our knowledge regarding olfactory processing remains limited. The recent development of next generation sequencing (NGS) techniques encouraged us to assess the transcriptome of the murine OE. We analyzed RNA from OEs of female and male adult mice and from fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS)-sorted olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) obtained from transgenic OMP-GFP mice. The Illumina RNA-Seq protocol was utilized to generate up to 86 million reads per transcriptome. In OE samples, nearly all OR and trace amine-associated receptor (TAAR) genes involved in the perception of volatile amines were detectably expressed. Other genes known to participate in olfactory signaling pathways were among the 200 genes with the highest expression levels in the OE. To identify OE-specific genes, we compared olfactory neuron expression profiles with RNA-Seq transcriptome data from different murine tissues. By analyzing different transcript classes, we detected the expression of non-olfactory GPCRs in ORNs and established an expression ranking for GPCRs detected in the OE. We also identified other previously undescribed membrane proteins as potential new players in olfaction. The quantitative and comprehensive transcriptome data provide a virtually complete catalogue of genes expressed in the OE and present a useful tool to uncover candidate genes involved in, for example, olfactory signaling, OR trafficking and recycling, and proliferation.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Classification of GO terms enriched in ORNs.Based on results from Ontologizer [88], specifically enriched GO terms are represented in this bar chart. For simplification, related classes were combined.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4295871&req=5

pone.0113170.g011: Classification of GO terms enriched in ORNs.Based on results from Ontologizer [88], specifically enriched GO terms are represented in this bar chart. For simplification, related classes were combined.

Mentions: Genes associated with the sensory perception of smell (including ORs, OMP, Gαolf, and ACIII) represented the predominant class/GO term (GO: 0007608) in our list (followed by the GO categories of ion transport (GO:0006811) and cilia morphogenesis (GO:0005929) (Fig. 11). Proliferating basal cells continuously replace dying or aging ORNs in the OE. Thus, it is not surprising to find that transcripts for neuronal differentiation (GO:0030182) are enriched in the OE [84]. The Ca2+-dependent odorant induced excitation and adaptation process [94] is the origin for the class/GO-term (GO:005509) that includes genes that encode proteins with calcium binding properties. Biological processes, such as protein transport (GO:0015031), RNA-processing (GO:0006396), and chromatin modification (GO:016568), are ubiquitous functions in cells. The corresponding categories contain the genes that support basic cellular mechanisms [95].


Deep sequencing of the murine olfactory receptor neuron transcriptome.

Kanageswaran N, Demond M, Nagel M, Schreiner BS, Baumgart S, Scholz P, Altmüller J, Becker C, Doerner JF, Conrad H, Oberland S, Wetzel CH, Neuhaus EM, Hatt H, Gisselmann G - PLoS ONE (2015)

Classification of GO terms enriched in ORNs.Based on results from Ontologizer [88], specifically enriched GO terms are represented in this bar chart. For simplification, related classes were combined.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4295871&req=5

pone.0113170.g011: Classification of GO terms enriched in ORNs.Based on results from Ontologizer [88], specifically enriched GO terms are represented in this bar chart. For simplification, related classes were combined.
Mentions: Genes associated with the sensory perception of smell (including ORs, OMP, Gαolf, and ACIII) represented the predominant class/GO term (GO: 0007608) in our list (followed by the GO categories of ion transport (GO:0006811) and cilia morphogenesis (GO:0005929) (Fig. 11). Proliferating basal cells continuously replace dying or aging ORNs in the OE. Thus, it is not surprising to find that transcripts for neuronal differentiation (GO:0030182) are enriched in the OE [84]. The Ca2+-dependent odorant induced excitation and adaptation process [94] is the origin for the class/GO-term (GO:005509) that includes genes that encode proteins with calcium binding properties. Biological processes, such as protein transport (GO:0015031), RNA-processing (GO:0006396), and chromatin modification (GO:016568), are ubiquitous functions in cells. The corresponding categories contain the genes that support basic cellular mechanisms [95].

Bottom Line: In OE samples, nearly all OR and trace amine-associated receptor (TAAR) genes involved in the perception of volatile amines were detectably expressed.To identify OE-specific genes, we compared olfactory neuron expression profiles with RNA-Seq transcriptome data from different murine tissues.We also identified other previously undescribed membrane proteins as potential new players in olfaction.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Ruhr-University Bochum, Department of Cell Physiology, Bochum, Germany.

ABSTRACT
The ability of animals to sense and differentiate among thousands of odorants relies on a large set of olfactory receptors (OR) and a multitude of accessory proteins within the olfactory epithelium (OE). ORs and related signaling mechanisms have been the subject of intensive studies over the past years, but our knowledge regarding olfactory processing remains limited. The recent development of next generation sequencing (NGS) techniques encouraged us to assess the transcriptome of the murine OE. We analyzed RNA from OEs of female and male adult mice and from fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS)-sorted olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) obtained from transgenic OMP-GFP mice. The Illumina RNA-Seq protocol was utilized to generate up to 86 million reads per transcriptome. In OE samples, nearly all OR and trace amine-associated receptor (TAAR) genes involved in the perception of volatile amines were detectably expressed. Other genes known to participate in olfactory signaling pathways were among the 200 genes with the highest expression levels in the OE. To identify OE-specific genes, we compared olfactory neuron expression profiles with RNA-Seq transcriptome data from different murine tissues. By analyzing different transcript classes, we detected the expression of non-olfactory GPCRs in ORNs and established an expression ranking for GPCRs detected in the OE. We also identified other previously undescribed membrane proteins as potential new players in olfaction. The quantitative and comprehensive transcriptome data provide a virtually complete catalogue of genes expressed in the OE and present a useful tool to uncover candidate genes involved in, for example, olfactory signaling, OR trafficking and recycling, and proliferation.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus