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Effects of core strength training using stable versus unstable surfaces on physical fitness in adolescents: a randomized controlled trial.

Granacher U, Schellbach J, Klein K, Prieske O, Baeyens JP, Muehlbauer T - BMC Sports Sci Med Rehabil (2014)

Bottom Line: Trends towards significance were found for the standing long jump test (1-3%, f = 0.39) and the stand-and-reach test (0-2%, f = 0.39).We could not detect any significant main effects of Group.However, CSTU as compared to CSTS had only limited additional effects (i.e., stand-and-reach test).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Training and Movement Sciences, Research Focus Cognition Sciences, University of Potsdam, Am Neuen Palais 10, Building 12, 14469 Potsdam, Germany.

ABSTRACT

Background: It has been demonstrated that core strength training is an effective means to enhance trunk muscle strength (TMS) and proxies of physical fitness in youth. Of note, cross-sectional studies revealed that the inclusion of unstable elements in core strengthening exercises produced increases in trunk muscle activity and thus provide potential extra training stimuli for performance enhancement. Thus, utilizing unstable surfaces during core strength training may even produce larger performance gains. However, the effects of core strength training using unstable surfaces are unresolved in youth. This randomized controlled study specifically investigated the effects of core strength training performed on stable surfaces (CSTS) compared to unstable surfaces (CSTU) on physical fitness in school-aged children.

Methods: Twenty-seven (14 girls, 13 boys) healthy subjects (mean age: 14 ± 1 years, age range: 13-15 years) were randomly assigned to a CSTS (n = 13) or a CSTU (n = 14) group. Both training programs lasted 6 weeks (2 sessions/week) and included frontal, dorsal, and lateral core exercises. During CSTU, these exercises were conducted on unstable surfaces (e.g., TOGU© DYNAIR CUSSIONS, THERA-BAND© STABILITY TRAINER).

Results: Significant main effects of Time (pre vs. post) were observed for the TMS tests (8-22%, f = 0.47-0.76), the jumping sideways test (4-5%, f = 1.07), and the Y balance test (2-3%, f = 0.46-0.49). Trends towards significance were found for the standing long jump test (1-3%, f = 0.39) and the stand-and-reach test (0-2%, f = 0.39). We could not detect any significant main effects of Group. Significant Time x Group interactions were detected for the stand-and-reach test in favour of the CSTU group (2%, f = 0.54).

Conclusions: Core strength training resulted in significant increases in proxies of physical fitness in adolescents. However, CSTU as compared to CSTS had only limited additional effects (i.e., stand-and-reach test). Consequently, if the goal of training is to enhance physical fitness, then CSTU has limited advantages over CSTS.

Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02290457 Registered 13 November 2014.

No MeSH data available.


Individual and mean pre- and post-testing data for a) Y balance test composite score (CS) while standing on the right leg and b) Y balance test CS while standing on the left leg by intervention group (CSTS, core strength training program using stable surfaces; CSTU, core strength training using unstable surfaces). Unfilled circles indicate individual data of the CSTS-group and filled circles indicate mean data of the CSTS-group. Unfilled squares indicate individual data of the CSTU-group and filled squares indicate mean data of the CSTU-group.
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Fig5: Individual and mean pre- and post-testing data for a) Y balance test composite score (CS) while standing on the right leg and b) Y balance test CS while standing on the left leg by intervention group (CSTS, core strength training program using stable surfaces; CSTU, core strength training using unstable surfaces). Unfilled circles indicate individual data of the CSTS-group and filled circles indicate mean data of the CSTS-group. Unfilled squares indicate individual data of the CSTU-group and filled squares indicate mean data of the CSTU-group.

Mentions: Significant main effects of “Time” were investigated regarding the CS when performing the Y balance test on the right (F1, 25 = 5.19, p < 0.05, f = 0.46) and the left leg (F1, 25 = 5.98, p < 0.05, f = 0.49) (Figure 5a, b). Yet, no significant main effect of “Group” nor “Time × Group” interactions were investigated (Table 3).Figure 5


Effects of core strength training using stable versus unstable surfaces on physical fitness in adolescents: a randomized controlled trial.

Granacher U, Schellbach J, Klein K, Prieske O, Baeyens JP, Muehlbauer T - BMC Sports Sci Med Rehabil (2014)

Individual and mean pre- and post-testing data for a) Y balance test composite score (CS) while standing on the right leg and b) Y balance test CS while standing on the left leg by intervention group (CSTS, core strength training program using stable surfaces; CSTU, core strength training using unstable surfaces). Unfilled circles indicate individual data of the CSTS-group and filled circles indicate mean data of the CSTS-group. Unfilled squares indicate individual data of the CSTU-group and filled squares indicate mean data of the CSTU-group.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4290805&req=5

Fig5: Individual and mean pre- and post-testing data for a) Y balance test composite score (CS) while standing on the right leg and b) Y balance test CS while standing on the left leg by intervention group (CSTS, core strength training program using stable surfaces; CSTU, core strength training using unstable surfaces). Unfilled circles indicate individual data of the CSTS-group and filled circles indicate mean data of the CSTS-group. Unfilled squares indicate individual data of the CSTU-group and filled squares indicate mean data of the CSTU-group.
Mentions: Significant main effects of “Time” were investigated regarding the CS when performing the Y balance test on the right (F1, 25 = 5.19, p < 0.05, f = 0.46) and the left leg (F1, 25 = 5.98, p < 0.05, f = 0.49) (Figure 5a, b). Yet, no significant main effect of “Group” nor “Time × Group” interactions were investigated (Table 3).Figure 5

Bottom Line: Trends towards significance were found for the standing long jump test (1-3%, f = 0.39) and the stand-and-reach test (0-2%, f = 0.39).We could not detect any significant main effects of Group.However, CSTU as compared to CSTS had only limited additional effects (i.e., stand-and-reach test).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Training and Movement Sciences, Research Focus Cognition Sciences, University of Potsdam, Am Neuen Palais 10, Building 12, 14469 Potsdam, Germany.

ABSTRACT

Background: It has been demonstrated that core strength training is an effective means to enhance trunk muscle strength (TMS) and proxies of physical fitness in youth. Of note, cross-sectional studies revealed that the inclusion of unstable elements in core strengthening exercises produced increases in trunk muscle activity and thus provide potential extra training stimuli for performance enhancement. Thus, utilizing unstable surfaces during core strength training may even produce larger performance gains. However, the effects of core strength training using unstable surfaces are unresolved in youth. This randomized controlled study specifically investigated the effects of core strength training performed on stable surfaces (CSTS) compared to unstable surfaces (CSTU) on physical fitness in school-aged children.

Methods: Twenty-seven (14 girls, 13 boys) healthy subjects (mean age: 14 ± 1 years, age range: 13-15 years) were randomly assigned to a CSTS (n = 13) or a CSTU (n = 14) group. Both training programs lasted 6 weeks (2 sessions/week) and included frontal, dorsal, and lateral core exercises. During CSTU, these exercises were conducted on unstable surfaces (e.g., TOGU© DYNAIR CUSSIONS, THERA-BAND© STABILITY TRAINER).

Results: Significant main effects of Time (pre vs. post) were observed for the TMS tests (8-22%, f = 0.47-0.76), the jumping sideways test (4-5%, f = 1.07), and the Y balance test (2-3%, f = 0.46-0.49). Trends towards significance were found for the standing long jump test (1-3%, f = 0.39) and the stand-and-reach test (0-2%, f = 0.39). We could not detect any significant main effects of Group. Significant Time x Group interactions were detected for the stand-and-reach test in favour of the CSTU group (2%, f = 0.54).

Conclusions: Core strength training resulted in significant increases in proxies of physical fitness in adolescents. However, CSTU as compared to CSTS had only limited additional effects (i.e., stand-and-reach test). Consequently, if the goal of training is to enhance physical fitness, then CSTU has limited advantages over CSTS.

Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02290457 Registered 13 November 2014.

No MeSH data available.