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Insecticide-treated net use before and after mass distribution in a fishing community along Lake Victoria, Kenya: successes and unavoidable pitfalls.

Larson PS, Minakawa N, Dida GO, Njenga SM, Ionides EL, Wilson ML - Malar. J. (2014)

Bottom Line: Household factors such as availability of nets and sleeping arrangements still reduced consistent net use, however.Comprehensive, direct-to-household, mass distribution of ITNs was effective in rapidly scaling up coverage, with use being maintained at a high level at least one year following the intervention.Free distribution of ITNs through direct-to-household distribution method can eliminate important constraints in determining consistent ITN use, thus enhancing the sustainability of effective intervention campaigns.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029, USA. anfangen@umich.edu.

ABSTRACT

Background: Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) have proven instrumental in the successful reduction of malaria incidence in holoendemic regions during the past decade. As distribution of ITNs throughout sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is being scaled up, maintaining maximal levels of coverage will be necessary to sustain current gains. The effectiveness of mass distribution of ITNs, requires careful analysis of successes and failures if impacts are to be sustained over the long term.

Methods: Mass distribution of ITNs to a rural Kenyan community along Lake Victoria was performed in early 2011. Surveyors collected data on ITN use both before and one year following this distribution. At both times, household representatives were asked to provide a complete accounting of ITNs within the dwelling, the location of each net, and the ages and genders of each person who slept under that net the previous night. Other data on household material possessions, education levels and occupations were recorded. Information on malaria preventative factors such as ceiling nets and indoor residual spraying was noted. Basic information on malaria knowledge and health-seeking behaviours was also collected. Patterns of ITN use before and one year following net distribution were compared using spatial and multi-variable statistical methods. Associations of ITN use with various individual, household, demographic and malaria related factors were tested using logistic regression.

Results: After infancy (<1 year), ITN use sharply declined until the late teenage years then began to rise again, plateauing at 30 years of age. Males were less likely to use ITNs than females. Prior to distribution, socio-economic factors such as parental education and occupation were associated with ITN use. Following distribution, ITN use was similar across social groups. Household factors such as availability of nets and sleeping arrangements still reduced consistent net use, however.

Conclusions: Comprehensive, direct-to-household, mass distribution of ITNs was effective in rapidly scaling up coverage, with use being maintained at a high level at least one year following the intervention. Free distribution of ITNs through direct-to-household distribution method can eliminate important constraints in determining consistent ITN use, thus enhancing the sustainability of effective intervention campaigns.

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Patterns of ITN use by age both before and after mass distribution. Lines are produced using a local regression smoothing technique. Patterns of males and females are presented for comparison.
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Fig5: Patterns of ITN use by age both before and after mass distribution. Lines are produced using a local regression smoothing technique. Patterns of males and females are presented for comparison.

Mentions: At the time of distribution, ITN use overall was reported by less than half of surveyed people, but heterogeneous among age groups (Figure 5). Reported age-specific use of an ITN was generally high just after birth, declined to very low levels in the late teen years, rose again until approximately age 30, and then dropped again among the elderly. Increasing use among males in their 20s occurred later than that among females, perhaps reflecting the tendency for men to be older than women in couples of reproductive age. Although coverage of ITNs one year post-distribution was nearly universal, the age-specific pattern of ITN use, overall and by gender, was the same as that observed before net distribution. Females generally tended to use ITNs more than males (F: 93% vs M: 90%, p < 0.0001), possibly the result of previous ITN distributions and health education campaigns which targeted mothers and pregnant women.Figure 5


Insecticide-treated net use before and after mass distribution in a fishing community along Lake Victoria, Kenya: successes and unavoidable pitfalls.

Larson PS, Minakawa N, Dida GO, Njenga SM, Ionides EL, Wilson ML - Malar. J. (2014)

Patterns of ITN use by age both before and after mass distribution. Lines are produced using a local regression smoothing technique. Patterns of males and females are presented for comparison.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4289357&req=5

Fig5: Patterns of ITN use by age both before and after mass distribution. Lines are produced using a local regression smoothing technique. Patterns of males and females are presented for comparison.
Mentions: At the time of distribution, ITN use overall was reported by less than half of surveyed people, but heterogeneous among age groups (Figure 5). Reported age-specific use of an ITN was generally high just after birth, declined to very low levels in the late teen years, rose again until approximately age 30, and then dropped again among the elderly. Increasing use among males in their 20s occurred later than that among females, perhaps reflecting the tendency for men to be older than women in couples of reproductive age. Although coverage of ITNs one year post-distribution was nearly universal, the age-specific pattern of ITN use, overall and by gender, was the same as that observed before net distribution. Females generally tended to use ITNs more than males (F: 93% vs M: 90%, p < 0.0001), possibly the result of previous ITN distributions and health education campaigns which targeted mothers and pregnant women.Figure 5

Bottom Line: Household factors such as availability of nets and sleeping arrangements still reduced consistent net use, however.Comprehensive, direct-to-household, mass distribution of ITNs was effective in rapidly scaling up coverage, with use being maintained at a high level at least one year following the intervention.Free distribution of ITNs through direct-to-household distribution method can eliminate important constraints in determining consistent ITN use, thus enhancing the sustainability of effective intervention campaigns.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029, USA. anfangen@umich.edu.

ABSTRACT

Background: Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) have proven instrumental in the successful reduction of malaria incidence in holoendemic regions during the past decade. As distribution of ITNs throughout sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is being scaled up, maintaining maximal levels of coverage will be necessary to sustain current gains. The effectiveness of mass distribution of ITNs, requires careful analysis of successes and failures if impacts are to be sustained over the long term.

Methods: Mass distribution of ITNs to a rural Kenyan community along Lake Victoria was performed in early 2011. Surveyors collected data on ITN use both before and one year following this distribution. At both times, household representatives were asked to provide a complete accounting of ITNs within the dwelling, the location of each net, and the ages and genders of each person who slept under that net the previous night. Other data on household material possessions, education levels and occupations were recorded. Information on malaria preventative factors such as ceiling nets and indoor residual spraying was noted. Basic information on malaria knowledge and health-seeking behaviours was also collected. Patterns of ITN use before and one year following net distribution were compared using spatial and multi-variable statistical methods. Associations of ITN use with various individual, household, demographic and malaria related factors were tested using logistic regression.

Results: After infancy (<1 year), ITN use sharply declined until the late teenage years then began to rise again, plateauing at 30 years of age. Males were less likely to use ITNs than females. Prior to distribution, socio-economic factors such as parental education and occupation were associated with ITN use. Following distribution, ITN use was similar across social groups. Household factors such as availability of nets and sleeping arrangements still reduced consistent net use, however.

Conclusions: Comprehensive, direct-to-household, mass distribution of ITNs was effective in rapidly scaling up coverage, with use being maintained at a high level at least one year following the intervention. Free distribution of ITNs through direct-to-household distribution method can eliminate important constraints in determining consistent ITN use, thus enhancing the sustainability of effective intervention campaigns.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus