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The relationship of parental rearing behavior and resilience as well as psychological symptoms in a representative sample.

Petrowski K, Brähler E, Zenger M - Health Qual Life Outcomes (2014)

Bottom Line: Furthermore, the effect of resilience did not vary across several age groups even though challenges may differ over a lifetime.Recalled parental rearing behavior such as rejection and punishment as well as control and overprotection exert a significant association on the strength of resilience.Resilience has an effect independent of gender and does not affect people of different age groups differently.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Medical Psychology and Medical Sociology, University of Leipzig, Philipp-Rosenthal-Strasse 55, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany. katja.petrowski@tu-dresden.de.

ABSTRACT

Background: Recalled parental rearing behavior is one of the factors influencing the strength of resilience. However, it is unclear whether resilience is a relatively stable personality trait or has a relational character whose protective strength changes over the course of life. Therefore, the association between recalled parental rearing and resilience as well as symptoms of anxiety and depression was investigated in respect to age and gender.

Methods: N = 4,782 healthy subjects aged 14-92 (M = 48.1 years) were selected by the random-route sampling method. In this sample, an ultra-short form of the Recalled Parental Rearing Behavior Questionnaire, the German short version of the resilience scale, and two screening instruments for depression and anxiety (PHQ-2, GAD-2) were filled out. Structural equation modelling was used to analyze the data estimated with the maximum likelihood method approach.

Results: The data revealed that rejection and punishment were clearly associated with lower resilience. Moreover, resilience had a strong connection to the symptoms of anxiety and depression. Resilience had the same quality of association in both men and women with respect to anxiety and depression. Furthermore, the effect of resilience did not vary across several age groups even though challenges may differ over a lifetime.

Conclusion: Recalled parental rearing behavior such as rejection and punishment as well as control and overprotection exert a significant association on the strength of resilience. Resilience has an effect independent of gender and does not affect people of different age groups differently.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Model of recalled parental rearing on resilience and on anxiety and depression (standardized values are depicted). Note: all coefficients are significant with p<.00.1.
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Fig1: Model of recalled parental rearing on resilience and on anxiety and depression (standardized values are depicted). Note: all coefficients are significant with p<.00.1.

Mentions: For each latent construct, two manifest indicators were taken into account. This was due to the focus of this study, namely the relationship between the examined constructs and not the detailed psychometric quality of the questionnaires, which can be assumed as good (with the exception of the original dimensionality of the RS-11). The final model is shown in Figure 1.Figure 1


The relationship of parental rearing behavior and resilience as well as psychological symptoms in a representative sample.

Petrowski K, Brähler E, Zenger M - Health Qual Life Outcomes (2014)

Model of recalled parental rearing on resilience and on anxiety and depression (standardized values are depicted). Note: all coefficients are significant with p<.00.1.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4289338&req=5

Fig1: Model of recalled parental rearing on resilience and on anxiety and depression (standardized values are depicted). Note: all coefficients are significant with p<.00.1.
Mentions: For each latent construct, two manifest indicators were taken into account. This was due to the focus of this study, namely the relationship between the examined constructs and not the detailed psychometric quality of the questionnaires, which can be assumed as good (with the exception of the original dimensionality of the RS-11). The final model is shown in Figure 1.Figure 1

Bottom Line: Furthermore, the effect of resilience did not vary across several age groups even though challenges may differ over a lifetime.Recalled parental rearing behavior such as rejection and punishment as well as control and overprotection exert a significant association on the strength of resilience.Resilience has an effect independent of gender and does not affect people of different age groups differently.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Medical Psychology and Medical Sociology, University of Leipzig, Philipp-Rosenthal-Strasse 55, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany. katja.petrowski@tu-dresden.de.

ABSTRACT

Background: Recalled parental rearing behavior is one of the factors influencing the strength of resilience. However, it is unclear whether resilience is a relatively stable personality trait or has a relational character whose protective strength changes over the course of life. Therefore, the association between recalled parental rearing and resilience as well as symptoms of anxiety and depression was investigated in respect to age and gender.

Methods: N = 4,782 healthy subjects aged 14-92 (M = 48.1 years) were selected by the random-route sampling method. In this sample, an ultra-short form of the Recalled Parental Rearing Behavior Questionnaire, the German short version of the resilience scale, and two screening instruments for depression and anxiety (PHQ-2, GAD-2) were filled out. Structural equation modelling was used to analyze the data estimated with the maximum likelihood method approach.

Results: The data revealed that rejection and punishment were clearly associated with lower resilience. Moreover, resilience had a strong connection to the symptoms of anxiety and depression. Resilience had the same quality of association in both men and women with respect to anxiety and depression. Furthermore, the effect of resilience did not vary across several age groups even though challenges may differ over a lifetime.

Conclusion: Recalled parental rearing behavior such as rejection and punishment as well as control and overprotection exert a significant association on the strength of resilience. Resilience has an effect independent of gender and does not affect people of different age groups differently.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus