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Antidepressant-like effects of the hydroalcoholic extracts of Hemerocallis citrina and its potential active components.

Du B, Tang X, Liu F, Zhang C, Zhao G, Ren F, Leng X - BMC Complement Altern Med (2014)

Bottom Line: The antidepressant-like effects of hydroalcoholic H. citrina extracts were mainly related to flavonoids, especially rutin and hesperidin.The antidepressant-like effects of hydroalcoholic H. citrina extracts are mainly related to flavonoids, especially rutin and hesperidin.The active extract is toxicologically safe for oral administration.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: CAU & ACC Joint-Laboratory of Space Food, College of Food Science & Nutritional Engineering, Key Laboratory of Functional Dairy Science of Beijing and Ministry of Education, Beijing Higher Institution Engineering Research Center of Animal Product, Beijing Dairy Industry Innovation Team, China Agricultural University, No,17 Qinghua East Road, Haidian, Beijing 100083, People's Republic of China. gzhao1000@163.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Herbal therapies are potential alternatives and adjuncts for depression treatment. The present study aims to investigate the antidepressant-like effects of hydroalcoholic Hemerocallis citrina extracts and its potential neuropharmacological components.

Methods: Hydroalcoholic H. citrina extracts were phytochemically analyzed. Behavioral models, including tail suspension tests and open field tests, were performed to evaluate the antidepressant-like effects of the extracts. A possible mechanism was explored by analyzing brain monoamine neurotransmitters. Toxicity and histopathological analyses were performed to determine whether or not the extracts are safe for oral administration.

Results: The antidepressant-like effects of hydroalcoholic H. citrina extracts were mainly related to flavonoids, especially rutin and hesperidin. The extract prepared using 75% ethanol (i.e., HCE75) exhibited the highest active flavonoid content and activity. Orally administered 400 mg/kg of HCE75 significantly induced an antidepressant-like effect, whereas the combination of equivalent rutin and hesperidin dosages exhibited the same profiles. Isobologram analysis showed sub-additive antidepressant interactions between rutin and hesperidin. HCE75 (400 mg/kg, p.o.) increased the serotonin and dopamine levels in the central nervous system. Mortality and lesions were not observed upon oral administration of up to 5000 mg/kg HCE75.

Conclusions: The antidepressant-like effects of hydroalcoholic H. citrina extracts are mainly related to flavonoids, especially rutin and hesperidin. The serotonergic and dopaminergic systems may have major roles. The active extract is toxicologically safe for oral administration.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Effects of HCE75 on monoamine neurotransmitter levels in the prefrontal cortex (A and C) and hippocampus (B and D) of mice without (A and B) or with TST (C and D). The mice of the groups unexposed to TST were decapitated and were subjected to brain surgery 66 min after administration (p.o.) of the vehicle (physiological saline with 2% Tween 80), fluoxetine (20 mg/kg), and HCE75 (20, 200, 400, 800, and 1600 mg/kg). The mice of the blank group were untreated, but similarly underwent brain surgery. The mice of the groups exposed to TST were decapitated and were subjected to brain surgery immediately after the animals were tested 60 min after treatment. Data are expressed as mean ± S.E.M. (n = 10). Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA for multiple comparisons, followed by post hoc Student–Newman–Keuls test. xp < 0.05, yp < 0.01, and zp < 0.001 compared with the blank group; ap < 0.05, bp < 0.01, and cp < 0.001 compared with the vehicle groups exposed to TST.
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Fig7: Effects of HCE75 on monoamine neurotransmitter levels in the prefrontal cortex (A and C) and hippocampus (B and D) of mice without (A and B) or with TST (C and D). The mice of the groups unexposed to TST were decapitated and were subjected to brain surgery 66 min after administration (p.o.) of the vehicle (physiological saline with 2% Tween 80), fluoxetine (20 mg/kg), and HCE75 (20, 200, 400, 800, and 1600 mg/kg). The mice of the blank group were untreated, but similarly underwent brain surgery. The mice of the groups exposed to TST were decapitated and were subjected to brain surgery immediately after the animals were tested 60 min after treatment. Data are expressed as mean ± S.E.M. (n = 10). Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA for multiple comparisons, followed by post hoc Student–Newman–Keuls test. xp < 0.05, yp < 0.01, and zp < 0.001 compared with the blank group; ap < 0.05, bp < 0.01, and cp < 0.001 compared with the vehicle groups exposed to TST.

Mentions: Depression symptoms are associated with changes in monoamine neurotransmitter (i.e., NE, DA, and 5-HT) levels in the CNS [1, 36]. The prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, which regulate emotion, motivation, learning, and memory, are essential in depression [37]. Nutt [36] revealed that NE is related to alertness, energy, and attention, and that DA is linked to pleasure, reward, and motivation in life. The 5-HT transmitter is related to compulsion, obsession, and anxiety.Figure 7 shows the monoamine neurotransmitter levels (i.e., NE, DA, and 5-HT) in the prefrontal cortex (Figure 7A and 7C) and hippocampus (Figure 7B and 7D) of the mice without (Figure 7A and 7B) or with TST (Figure 7C and 7D), respectively, after treatment. The DA level in the hippocampus was too low to be detected.Figure 7


Antidepressant-like effects of the hydroalcoholic extracts of Hemerocallis citrina and its potential active components.

Du B, Tang X, Liu F, Zhang C, Zhao G, Ren F, Leng X - BMC Complement Altern Med (2014)

Effects of HCE75 on monoamine neurotransmitter levels in the prefrontal cortex (A and C) and hippocampus (B and D) of mice without (A and B) or with TST (C and D). The mice of the groups unexposed to TST were decapitated and were subjected to brain surgery 66 min after administration (p.o.) of the vehicle (physiological saline with 2% Tween 80), fluoxetine (20 mg/kg), and HCE75 (20, 200, 400, 800, and 1600 mg/kg). The mice of the blank group were untreated, but similarly underwent brain surgery. The mice of the groups exposed to TST were decapitated and were subjected to brain surgery immediately after the animals were tested 60 min after treatment. Data are expressed as mean ± S.E.M. (n = 10). Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA for multiple comparisons, followed by post hoc Student–Newman–Keuls test. xp < 0.05, yp < 0.01, and zp < 0.001 compared with the blank group; ap < 0.05, bp < 0.01, and cp < 0.001 compared with the vehicle groups exposed to TST.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4289322&req=5

Fig7: Effects of HCE75 on monoamine neurotransmitter levels in the prefrontal cortex (A and C) and hippocampus (B and D) of mice without (A and B) or with TST (C and D). The mice of the groups unexposed to TST were decapitated and were subjected to brain surgery 66 min after administration (p.o.) of the vehicle (physiological saline with 2% Tween 80), fluoxetine (20 mg/kg), and HCE75 (20, 200, 400, 800, and 1600 mg/kg). The mice of the blank group were untreated, but similarly underwent brain surgery. The mice of the groups exposed to TST were decapitated and were subjected to brain surgery immediately after the animals were tested 60 min after treatment. Data are expressed as mean ± S.E.M. (n = 10). Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA for multiple comparisons, followed by post hoc Student–Newman–Keuls test. xp < 0.05, yp < 0.01, and zp < 0.001 compared with the blank group; ap < 0.05, bp < 0.01, and cp < 0.001 compared with the vehicle groups exposed to TST.
Mentions: Depression symptoms are associated with changes in monoamine neurotransmitter (i.e., NE, DA, and 5-HT) levels in the CNS [1, 36]. The prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, which regulate emotion, motivation, learning, and memory, are essential in depression [37]. Nutt [36] revealed that NE is related to alertness, energy, and attention, and that DA is linked to pleasure, reward, and motivation in life. The 5-HT transmitter is related to compulsion, obsession, and anxiety.Figure 7 shows the monoamine neurotransmitter levels (i.e., NE, DA, and 5-HT) in the prefrontal cortex (Figure 7A and 7C) and hippocampus (Figure 7B and 7D) of the mice without (Figure 7A and 7B) or with TST (Figure 7C and 7D), respectively, after treatment. The DA level in the hippocampus was too low to be detected.Figure 7

Bottom Line: The antidepressant-like effects of hydroalcoholic H. citrina extracts were mainly related to flavonoids, especially rutin and hesperidin.The antidepressant-like effects of hydroalcoholic H. citrina extracts are mainly related to flavonoids, especially rutin and hesperidin.The active extract is toxicologically safe for oral administration.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: CAU & ACC Joint-Laboratory of Space Food, College of Food Science & Nutritional Engineering, Key Laboratory of Functional Dairy Science of Beijing and Ministry of Education, Beijing Higher Institution Engineering Research Center of Animal Product, Beijing Dairy Industry Innovation Team, China Agricultural University, No,17 Qinghua East Road, Haidian, Beijing 100083, People's Republic of China. gzhao1000@163.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Herbal therapies are potential alternatives and adjuncts for depression treatment. The present study aims to investigate the antidepressant-like effects of hydroalcoholic Hemerocallis citrina extracts and its potential neuropharmacological components.

Methods: Hydroalcoholic H. citrina extracts were phytochemically analyzed. Behavioral models, including tail suspension tests and open field tests, were performed to evaluate the antidepressant-like effects of the extracts. A possible mechanism was explored by analyzing brain monoamine neurotransmitters. Toxicity and histopathological analyses were performed to determine whether or not the extracts are safe for oral administration.

Results: The antidepressant-like effects of hydroalcoholic H. citrina extracts were mainly related to flavonoids, especially rutin and hesperidin. The extract prepared using 75% ethanol (i.e., HCE75) exhibited the highest active flavonoid content and activity. Orally administered 400 mg/kg of HCE75 significantly induced an antidepressant-like effect, whereas the combination of equivalent rutin and hesperidin dosages exhibited the same profiles. Isobologram analysis showed sub-additive antidepressant interactions between rutin and hesperidin. HCE75 (400 mg/kg, p.o.) increased the serotonin and dopamine levels in the central nervous system. Mortality and lesions were not observed upon oral administration of up to 5000 mg/kg HCE75.

Conclusions: The antidepressant-like effects of hydroalcoholic H. citrina extracts are mainly related to flavonoids, especially rutin and hesperidin. The serotonergic and dopaminergic systems may have major roles. The active extract is toxicologically safe for oral administration.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus