Limits...
Antidepressant-like effects of the hydroalcoholic extracts of Hemerocallis citrina and its potential active components.

Du B, Tang X, Liu F, Zhang C, Zhao G, Ren F, Leng X - BMC Complement Altern Med (2014)

Bottom Line: The antidepressant-like effects of hydroalcoholic H. citrina extracts were mainly related to flavonoids, especially rutin and hesperidin.The antidepressant-like effects of hydroalcoholic H. citrina extracts are mainly related to flavonoids, especially rutin and hesperidin.The active extract is toxicologically safe for oral administration.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: CAU & ACC Joint-Laboratory of Space Food, College of Food Science & Nutritional Engineering, Key Laboratory of Functional Dairy Science of Beijing and Ministry of Education, Beijing Higher Institution Engineering Research Center of Animal Product, Beijing Dairy Industry Innovation Team, China Agricultural University, No,17 Qinghua East Road, Haidian, Beijing 100083, People's Republic of China. gzhao1000@163.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Herbal therapies are potential alternatives and adjuncts for depression treatment. The present study aims to investigate the antidepressant-like effects of hydroalcoholic Hemerocallis citrina extracts and its potential neuropharmacological components.

Methods: Hydroalcoholic H. citrina extracts were phytochemically analyzed. Behavioral models, including tail suspension tests and open field tests, were performed to evaluate the antidepressant-like effects of the extracts. A possible mechanism was explored by analyzing brain monoamine neurotransmitters. Toxicity and histopathological analyses were performed to determine whether or not the extracts are safe for oral administration.

Results: The antidepressant-like effects of hydroalcoholic H. citrina extracts were mainly related to flavonoids, especially rutin and hesperidin. The extract prepared using 75% ethanol (i.e., HCE75) exhibited the highest active flavonoid content and activity. Orally administered 400 mg/kg of HCE75 significantly induced an antidepressant-like effect, whereas the combination of equivalent rutin and hesperidin dosages exhibited the same profiles. Isobologram analysis showed sub-additive antidepressant interactions between rutin and hesperidin. HCE75 (400 mg/kg, p.o.) increased the serotonin and dopamine levels in the central nervous system. Mortality and lesions were not observed upon oral administration of up to 5000 mg/kg HCE75.

Conclusions: The antidepressant-like effects of hydroalcoholic H. citrina extracts are mainly related to flavonoids, especially rutin and hesperidin. The serotonergic and dopaminergic systems may have major roles. The active extract is toxicologically safe for oral administration.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Dose–response curves of the immobility time in TST with respect to the control groups. (A) The positive reference group (fluoxetine, 20 mg/kg, p.o.) response was 0 for the antidepressant-like effects of rutin, hesperidin, and the fixed-ratio combination of rutin/hesperidin (75:21.5, w/w). (B) The consequent isobolograms. Data are expressed as mean ± S.E.M. (n = 10).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4289322&req=5

Fig6: Dose–response curves of the immobility time in TST with respect to the control groups. (A) The positive reference group (fluoxetine, 20 mg/kg, p.o.) response was 0 for the antidepressant-like effects of rutin, hesperidin, and the fixed-ratio combination of rutin/hesperidin (75:21.5, w/w). (B) The consequent isobolograms. Data are expressed as mean ± S.E.M. (n = 10).

Mentions: Dose–response curves were obtained for rutin, hesperidin, and their fixed-ratio combination (75:21.5, w/w; Figure 6A) to assess the interaction between rutin and hesperidin in the antidepressant-like effects in TST. The data were fitted to logistic dose–response curves via nonlinear regression. Dose-dependent antidepressant-like effects were observed for the chosen dose ranges with 2.5 mg/kg rutin, 1.2 mg/kg hesperidin, and 3.7 mg/kg fixed-ratio rutin/hesperidin combination median effective dose values. The isobolograms obtained for the rutin/hesperidin fixed-ratio combination (Figure 6B) reveal a sub-additive effect. The result implies an antagonistic interaction between rutin and hesperidin. Few studies focused on the assessment of the neuroactive properties of flavonoid-flavonoid interactions. The active potency of a given flavonoid is closely linked to its structure, such as the ortho-dihydroxy structure in the B-ring, the 2-3-double bond in conjugation with a 4-oxo function, and the presence of the 3- and 5-OH functions [35]. More detailed studies are required to elucidate the mechanisms involved in the neuropharmacological interactions.Figure 6


Antidepressant-like effects of the hydroalcoholic extracts of Hemerocallis citrina and its potential active components.

Du B, Tang X, Liu F, Zhang C, Zhao G, Ren F, Leng X - BMC Complement Altern Med (2014)

Dose–response curves of the immobility time in TST with respect to the control groups. (A) The positive reference group (fluoxetine, 20 mg/kg, p.o.) response was 0 for the antidepressant-like effects of rutin, hesperidin, and the fixed-ratio combination of rutin/hesperidin (75:21.5, w/w). (B) The consequent isobolograms. Data are expressed as mean ± S.E.M. (n = 10).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4289322&req=5

Fig6: Dose–response curves of the immobility time in TST with respect to the control groups. (A) The positive reference group (fluoxetine, 20 mg/kg, p.o.) response was 0 for the antidepressant-like effects of rutin, hesperidin, and the fixed-ratio combination of rutin/hesperidin (75:21.5, w/w). (B) The consequent isobolograms. Data are expressed as mean ± S.E.M. (n = 10).
Mentions: Dose–response curves were obtained for rutin, hesperidin, and their fixed-ratio combination (75:21.5, w/w; Figure 6A) to assess the interaction between rutin and hesperidin in the antidepressant-like effects in TST. The data were fitted to logistic dose–response curves via nonlinear regression. Dose-dependent antidepressant-like effects were observed for the chosen dose ranges with 2.5 mg/kg rutin, 1.2 mg/kg hesperidin, and 3.7 mg/kg fixed-ratio rutin/hesperidin combination median effective dose values. The isobolograms obtained for the rutin/hesperidin fixed-ratio combination (Figure 6B) reveal a sub-additive effect. The result implies an antagonistic interaction between rutin and hesperidin. Few studies focused on the assessment of the neuroactive properties of flavonoid-flavonoid interactions. The active potency of a given flavonoid is closely linked to its structure, such as the ortho-dihydroxy structure in the B-ring, the 2-3-double bond in conjugation with a 4-oxo function, and the presence of the 3- and 5-OH functions [35]. More detailed studies are required to elucidate the mechanisms involved in the neuropharmacological interactions.Figure 6

Bottom Line: The antidepressant-like effects of hydroalcoholic H. citrina extracts were mainly related to flavonoids, especially rutin and hesperidin.The antidepressant-like effects of hydroalcoholic H. citrina extracts are mainly related to flavonoids, especially rutin and hesperidin.The active extract is toxicologically safe for oral administration.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: CAU & ACC Joint-Laboratory of Space Food, College of Food Science & Nutritional Engineering, Key Laboratory of Functional Dairy Science of Beijing and Ministry of Education, Beijing Higher Institution Engineering Research Center of Animal Product, Beijing Dairy Industry Innovation Team, China Agricultural University, No,17 Qinghua East Road, Haidian, Beijing 100083, People's Republic of China. gzhao1000@163.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Herbal therapies are potential alternatives and adjuncts for depression treatment. The present study aims to investigate the antidepressant-like effects of hydroalcoholic Hemerocallis citrina extracts and its potential neuropharmacological components.

Methods: Hydroalcoholic H. citrina extracts were phytochemically analyzed. Behavioral models, including tail suspension tests and open field tests, were performed to evaluate the antidepressant-like effects of the extracts. A possible mechanism was explored by analyzing brain monoamine neurotransmitters. Toxicity and histopathological analyses were performed to determine whether or not the extracts are safe for oral administration.

Results: The antidepressant-like effects of hydroalcoholic H. citrina extracts were mainly related to flavonoids, especially rutin and hesperidin. The extract prepared using 75% ethanol (i.e., HCE75) exhibited the highest active flavonoid content and activity. Orally administered 400 mg/kg of HCE75 significantly induced an antidepressant-like effect, whereas the combination of equivalent rutin and hesperidin dosages exhibited the same profiles. Isobologram analysis showed sub-additive antidepressant interactions between rutin and hesperidin. HCE75 (400 mg/kg, p.o.) increased the serotonin and dopamine levels in the central nervous system. Mortality and lesions were not observed upon oral administration of up to 5000 mg/kg HCE75.

Conclusions: The antidepressant-like effects of hydroalcoholic H. citrina extracts are mainly related to flavonoids, especially rutin and hesperidin. The serotonergic and dopaminergic systems may have major roles. The active extract is toxicologically safe for oral administration.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus