Limits...
A boreal invasion in response to climate change? Range shifts and community effects in the borderland between forest and tundra.

Elmhagen B, Kindberg J, Hellström P, Angerbjörn A - Ambio (2015)

Bottom Line: However, in addition to climate warming, suggested drivers of change include land use and other anthropogenic factors.We hypothesize all these drivers interacted, primarily favoring southern generalists.Future research should aim to distinguish between effects of climate and land-use change in boreal and tundra ecosystems.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, 106 91, Stockholm, Sweden, bodil.elmhagen@zoologi.su.se.

ABSTRACT
It has been hypothesized that climate warming will allow southern species to advance north and invade northern ecosystems. We review the changes in the Swedish mammal and bird community in boreal forest and alpine tundra since the nineteenth century, as well as suggested drivers of change. Observed changes include (1) range expansion and increased abundance in southern birds, ungulates, and carnivores; (2) range contraction and decline in northern birds and carnivores; and (3) abundance decline or periodically disrupted dynamics in cyclic populations of small and medium-sized mammals and birds. The first warm spell, 1930-1960, stands out as a period of substantial faunal change. However, in addition to climate warming, suggested drivers of change include land use and other anthropogenic factors. We hypothesize all these drivers interacted, primarily favoring southern generalists. Future research should aim to distinguish between effects of climate and land-use change in boreal and tundra ecosystems.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Western expansion or population increase in three southern species between 1997 and 2012, indicated by hunting bags in boreal hunting districts in Västerbotten county (V). The climate is harsher in the west (Fig. 1). Hunting bag data were provided by the Swedish Association for Hunting and Wildlife Management
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Fig4: Western expansion or population increase in three southern species between 1997 and 2012, indicated by hunting bags in boreal hunting districts in Västerbotten county (V). The climate is harsher in the west (Fig. 1). Hunting bag data were provided by the Swedish Association for Hunting and Wildlife Management

Mentions: The guild consists of reindeer, moose (Alces alces), and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). All reindeer are semi-domesticated, and the population has fluctuated around 225 000 in the 1900s (Anonymous 2006). Moose declined due to hunting in the early 1800s. By 1830, only a small population remained in south-central Sweden (Liberg et al. 2010). Following protection, moose gradually colonized (recolonized) northern Sweden in 1870–1910 and is now found in all but high alpine areas (Sweden’s Official Statistics 1870–1910; Liberg et al. 2010). In the eighteenth century, the northern distribution limit of roe deer was found in southern boreal Sweden, but the species declined due to hunting in the early 1800s and was extirpated in all but southernmost Sweden (Liberg et al. 2010). Roe deer recolonized temperate Sweden in the 1800s, but then continued to spread north in boreal Sweden in the 1900s. It is now found throughout Sweden, with the exception for alpine tundra and inland boreal forest north of the Arctic Circle (Figs. 3, 4; Sweden’s Official Statistics 1870–1966; Liberg et al. 2010).Fig. 4


A boreal invasion in response to climate change? Range shifts and community effects in the borderland between forest and tundra.

Elmhagen B, Kindberg J, Hellström P, Angerbjörn A - Ambio (2015)

Western expansion or population increase in three southern species between 1997 and 2012, indicated by hunting bags in boreal hunting districts in Västerbotten county (V). The climate is harsher in the west (Fig. 1). Hunting bag data were provided by the Swedish Association for Hunting and Wildlife Management
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4289007&req=5

Fig4: Western expansion or population increase in three southern species between 1997 and 2012, indicated by hunting bags in boreal hunting districts in Västerbotten county (V). The climate is harsher in the west (Fig. 1). Hunting bag data were provided by the Swedish Association for Hunting and Wildlife Management
Mentions: The guild consists of reindeer, moose (Alces alces), and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). All reindeer are semi-domesticated, and the population has fluctuated around 225 000 in the 1900s (Anonymous 2006). Moose declined due to hunting in the early 1800s. By 1830, only a small population remained in south-central Sweden (Liberg et al. 2010). Following protection, moose gradually colonized (recolonized) northern Sweden in 1870–1910 and is now found in all but high alpine areas (Sweden’s Official Statistics 1870–1910; Liberg et al. 2010). In the eighteenth century, the northern distribution limit of roe deer was found in southern boreal Sweden, but the species declined due to hunting in the early 1800s and was extirpated in all but southernmost Sweden (Liberg et al. 2010). Roe deer recolonized temperate Sweden in the 1800s, but then continued to spread north in boreal Sweden in the 1900s. It is now found throughout Sweden, with the exception for alpine tundra and inland boreal forest north of the Arctic Circle (Figs. 3, 4; Sweden’s Official Statistics 1870–1966; Liberg et al. 2010).Fig. 4

Bottom Line: However, in addition to climate warming, suggested drivers of change include land use and other anthropogenic factors.We hypothesize all these drivers interacted, primarily favoring southern generalists.Future research should aim to distinguish between effects of climate and land-use change in boreal and tundra ecosystems.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, 106 91, Stockholm, Sweden, bodil.elmhagen@zoologi.su.se.

ABSTRACT
It has been hypothesized that climate warming will allow southern species to advance north and invade northern ecosystems. We review the changes in the Swedish mammal and bird community in boreal forest and alpine tundra since the nineteenth century, as well as suggested drivers of change. Observed changes include (1) range expansion and increased abundance in southern birds, ungulates, and carnivores; (2) range contraction and decline in northern birds and carnivores; and (3) abundance decline or periodically disrupted dynamics in cyclic populations of small and medium-sized mammals and birds. The first warm spell, 1930-1960, stands out as a period of substantial faunal change. However, in addition to climate warming, suggested drivers of change include land use and other anthropogenic factors. We hypothesize all these drivers interacted, primarily favoring southern generalists. Future research should aim to distinguish between effects of climate and land-use change in boreal and tundra ecosystems.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus