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Climate change, phenology, and butterfly host plant utilization.

Navarro-Cano JA, Karlsson B, Posledovich D, Toftegaard T, Wiklund C, Ehrlén J, Gotthard K - Ambio (2015)

Bottom Line: We conclude that A. cardamines is a phenological specialist but a host species generalist.This implies that thermal plasticity for spring development influences host utilization of the butterfly through effects on the phenological matching with its host plants.However, the host utilization strategy of A. cardamines appears to render it resilient to relatively large variation in climate.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, 106 91, Stockholm, Sweden, jose.a.navarro@uv.es.

ABSTRACT
Knowledge of how species interactions are influenced by climate warming is paramount to understand current biodiversity changes. We review phenological changes of Swedish butterflies during the latest decades and explore potential climate effects on butterfly-host plant interactions using the Orange tip butterfly Anthocharis cardamines and its host plants as a model system. This butterfly has advanced its appearance dates substantially, and its mean flight date shows a positive correlation with latitude. We show that there is a large latitudinal variation in host use and that butterfly populations select plant individuals based on their flowering phenology. We conclude that A. cardamines is a phenological specialist but a host species generalist. This implies that thermal plasticity for spring development influences host utilization of the butterfly through effects on the phenological matching with its host plants. However, the host utilization strategy of A. cardamines appears to render it resilient to relatively large variation in climate.

No MeSH data available.


Box-plots showing the mean phenology (second axis from a PCA, see text) for plant individuals of seven different species and from three different regions that were either oviposited on by the butterfly Anthocharis cardamines (1) or that escaped attack (0). The seven host plant species were arth = Arabidopsis thaliana), thca = Thlaspi caerulescens, cabu = Capsella bursa-pastoris, capr4 = Cardamine pratensis), capr8 = Cardamine paludosa, arhi = Arabis hirsuta, and argl = Arabis glabra. The three regions were: south (S), central (C), and north (N). Significant differences between groups are indicated by asterisks (*P ≤ 0.05, **P ≤ 0.01, ***P ≤ 0.001). Note that scales differ among species
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Fig6: Box-plots showing the mean phenology (second axis from a PCA, see text) for plant individuals of seven different species and from three different regions that were either oviposited on by the butterfly Anthocharis cardamines (1) or that escaped attack (0). The seven host plant species were arth = Arabidopsis thaliana), thca = Thlaspi caerulescens, cabu = Capsella bursa-pastoris, capr4 = Cardamine pratensis), capr8 = Cardamine paludosa, arhi = Arabis hirsuta, and argl = Arabis glabra. The three regions were: south (S), central (C), and north (N). Significant differences between groups are indicated by asterisks (*P ≤ 0.05, **P ≤ 0.01, ***P ≤ 0.001). Note that scales differ among species

Mentions: Among-individual differences in plant resistance to oviposition were related to phenology and size, but relationships differed among species and among regions (Fig. 6; Table 10.1007/s13280-014-0602-7 in Electronic Supplementary Material). Plants in more advance phenological stages were significantly more attacked in A. thaliana, T. caerulescens, C. pratensis, A. hirsuta, and A. glabra, while the opposite was true in C. paludosa. However, the effects of phenology significantly differed among regions for several species (significant effects of region × phenology in two species and of region × size × phenology in two additional species, Table 10.1007/s13280-014-0602-7). In T. caerulescens, late-flowering individuals were more attacked in the north, but there was no significant effect of phenology in the central region. In C. pratensis, late-flowering individuals were more attacked in the south region but there was no effect of phenology in the other regions. On average, butterflies preferred larger plants in all host species except for T. caerulescens (Fig. 10.1007/s13280-014-0602-7). However, in five of seven species, the effects of size differed along the latitudinal gradient (significant effects of region × size or region × size × phenology in Table 10.1007/s13280-014-0602-7). There were also significant effects of the interaction size × phenology in four of seven species.Fig. 6


Climate change, phenology, and butterfly host plant utilization.

Navarro-Cano JA, Karlsson B, Posledovich D, Toftegaard T, Wiklund C, Ehrlén J, Gotthard K - Ambio (2015)

Box-plots showing the mean phenology (second axis from a PCA, see text) for plant individuals of seven different species and from three different regions that were either oviposited on by the butterfly Anthocharis cardamines (1) or that escaped attack (0). The seven host plant species were arth = Arabidopsis thaliana), thca = Thlaspi caerulescens, cabu = Capsella bursa-pastoris, capr4 = Cardamine pratensis), capr8 = Cardamine paludosa, arhi = Arabis hirsuta, and argl = Arabis glabra. The three regions were: south (S), central (C), and north (N). Significant differences between groups are indicated by asterisks (*P ≤ 0.05, **P ≤ 0.01, ***P ≤ 0.001). Note that scales differ among species
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4289000&req=5

Fig6: Box-plots showing the mean phenology (second axis from a PCA, see text) for plant individuals of seven different species and from three different regions that were either oviposited on by the butterfly Anthocharis cardamines (1) or that escaped attack (0). The seven host plant species were arth = Arabidopsis thaliana), thca = Thlaspi caerulescens, cabu = Capsella bursa-pastoris, capr4 = Cardamine pratensis), capr8 = Cardamine paludosa, arhi = Arabis hirsuta, and argl = Arabis glabra. The three regions were: south (S), central (C), and north (N). Significant differences between groups are indicated by asterisks (*P ≤ 0.05, **P ≤ 0.01, ***P ≤ 0.001). Note that scales differ among species
Mentions: Among-individual differences in plant resistance to oviposition were related to phenology and size, but relationships differed among species and among regions (Fig. 6; Table 10.1007/s13280-014-0602-7 in Electronic Supplementary Material). Plants in more advance phenological stages were significantly more attacked in A. thaliana, T. caerulescens, C. pratensis, A. hirsuta, and A. glabra, while the opposite was true in C. paludosa. However, the effects of phenology significantly differed among regions for several species (significant effects of region × phenology in two species and of region × size × phenology in two additional species, Table 10.1007/s13280-014-0602-7). In T. caerulescens, late-flowering individuals were more attacked in the north, but there was no significant effect of phenology in the central region. In C. pratensis, late-flowering individuals were more attacked in the south region but there was no effect of phenology in the other regions. On average, butterflies preferred larger plants in all host species except for T. caerulescens (Fig. 10.1007/s13280-014-0602-7). However, in five of seven species, the effects of size differed along the latitudinal gradient (significant effects of region × size or region × size × phenology in Table 10.1007/s13280-014-0602-7). There were also significant effects of the interaction size × phenology in four of seven species.Fig. 6

Bottom Line: We conclude that A. cardamines is a phenological specialist but a host species generalist.This implies that thermal plasticity for spring development influences host utilization of the butterfly through effects on the phenological matching with its host plants.However, the host utilization strategy of A. cardamines appears to render it resilient to relatively large variation in climate.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, 106 91, Stockholm, Sweden, jose.a.navarro@uv.es.

ABSTRACT
Knowledge of how species interactions are influenced by climate warming is paramount to understand current biodiversity changes. We review phenological changes of Swedish butterflies during the latest decades and explore potential climate effects on butterfly-host plant interactions using the Orange tip butterfly Anthocharis cardamines and its host plants as a model system. This butterfly has advanced its appearance dates substantially, and its mean flight date shows a positive correlation with latitude. We show that there is a large latitudinal variation in host use and that butterfly populations select plant individuals based on their flowering phenology. We conclude that A. cardamines is a phenological specialist but a host species generalist. This implies that thermal plasticity for spring development influences host utilization of the butterfly through effects on the phenological matching with its host plants. However, the host utilization strategy of A. cardamines appears to render it resilient to relatively large variation in climate.

No MeSH data available.