Limits...
Climate change, phenology, and butterfly host plant utilization.

Navarro-Cano JA, Karlsson B, Posledovich D, Toftegaard T, Wiklund C, Ehrlén J, Gotthard K - Ambio (2015)

Bottom Line: We conclude that A. cardamines is a phenological specialist but a host species generalist.This implies that thermal plasticity for spring development influences host utilization of the butterfly through effects on the phenological matching with its host plants.However, the host utilization strategy of A. cardamines appears to render it resilient to relatively large variation in climate.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, 106 91, Stockholm, Sweden, jose.a.navarro@uv.es.

ABSTRACT
Knowledge of how species interactions are influenced by climate warming is paramount to understand current biodiversity changes. We review phenological changes of Swedish butterflies during the latest decades and explore potential climate effects on butterfly-host plant interactions using the Orange tip butterfly Anthocharis cardamines and its host plants as a model system. This butterfly has advanced its appearance dates substantially, and its mean flight date shows a positive correlation with latitude. We show that there is a large latitudinal variation in host use and that butterfly populations select plant individuals based on their flowering phenology. We conclude that A. cardamines is a phenological specialist but a host species generalist. This implies that thermal plasticity for spring development influences host utilization of the butterfly through effects on the phenological matching with its host plants. However, the host utilization strategy of A. cardamines appears to render it resilient to relatively large variation in climate.

No MeSH data available.


Comparison of mean flight date among univoltine (U, n = 46), bivoltine (B, n = 13), and adult overwintering (A, n = 7) butterfly species. Mean and SD, F(2,63) = 30.9, P < 0.001. Mean flight date is from Karlsson (2013), and overwintering stage is from Eliasson et al. (2005)
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Fig4: Comparison of mean flight date among univoltine (U, n = 46), bivoltine (B, n = 13), and adult overwintering (A, n = 7) butterfly species. Mean and SD, F(2,63) = 30.9, P < 0.001. Mean flight date is from Karlsson (2013), and overwintering stage is from Eliasson et al. (2005)

Mentions: Since A. cardamines is a univoltine species throughout its geographic range, it is of interest to restrict the comparison to species sharing this characteristic. Among the 66 species investigated by Karlsson (2013), univoltine species generally have significantly later flight dates compared to bivoltine species (Fig. 4) (and also compared to adult overwintering species where adults appear two times per season but with generally only one cohort of larvae developing each year) (Fig. 3). Anthocharis cardamines has a relatively early flight also when compared only to other univoltine butterfly species; only 2 out of 46 investigated Swedish univoltine species fly at earlier dates than A. cardamines. To summarize, our focal species appears early in the season and much earlier at southern than at northern latitudes, and has advanced its flight dates in response to climate warming more strongly than most other butterfly species in the same area.Fig. 4


Climate change, phenology, and butterfly host plant utilization.

Navarro-Cano JA, Karlsson B, Posledovich D, Toftegaard T, Wiklund C, Ehrlén J, Gotthard K - Ambio (2015)

Comparison of mean flight date among univoltine (U, n = 46), bivoltine (B, n = 13), and adult overwintering (A, n = 7) butterfly species. Mean and SD, F(2,63) = 30.9, P < 0.001. Mean flight date is from Karlsson (2013), and overwintering stage is from Eliasson et al. (2005)
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4289000&req=5

Fig4: Comparison of mean flight date among univoltine (U, n = 46), bivoltine (B, n = 13), and adult overwintering (A, n = 7) butterfly species. Mean and SD, F(2,63) = 30.9, P < 0.001. Mean flight date is from Karlsson (2013), and overwintering stage is from Eliasson et al. (2005)
Mentions: Since A. cardamines is a univoltine species throughout its geographic range, it is of interest to restrict the comparison to species sharing this characteristic. Among the 66 species investigated by Karlsson (2013), univoltine species generally have significantly later flight dates compared to bivoltine species (Fig. 4) (and also compared to adult overwintering species where adults appear two times per season but with generally only one cohort of larvae developing each year) (Fig. 3). Anthocharis cardamines has a relatively early flight also when compared only to other univoltine butterfly species; only 2 out of 46 investigated Swedish univoltine species fly at earlier dates than A. cardamines. To summarize, our focal species appears early in the season and much earlier at southern than at northern latitudes, and has advanced its flight dates in response to climate warming more strongly than most other butterfly species in the same area.Fig. 4

Bottom Line: We conclude that A. cardamines is a phenological specialist but a host species generalist.This implies that thermal plasticity for spring development influences host utilization of the butterfly through effects on the phenological matching with its host plants.However, the host utilization strategy of A. cardamines appears to render it resilient to relatively large variation in climate.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, 106 91, Stockholm, Sweden, jose.a.navarro@uv.es.

ABSTRACT
Knowledge of how species interactions are influenced by climate warming is paramount to understand current biodiversity changes. We review phenological changes of Swedish butterflies during the latest decades and explore potential climate effects on butterfly-host plant interactions using the Orange tip butterfly Anthocharis cardamines and its host plants as a model system. This butterfly has advanced its appearance dates substantially, and its mean flight date shows a positive correlation with latitude. We show that there is a large latitudinal variation in host use and that butterfly populations select plant individuals based on their flowering phenology. We conclude that A. cardamines is a phenological specialist but a host species generalist. This implies that thermal plasticity for spring development influences host utilization of the butterfly through effects on the phenological matching with its host plants. However, the host utilization strategy of A. cardamines appears to render it resilient to relatively large variation in climate.

No MeSH data available.