Limits...
Climate change, phenology, and butterfly host plant utilization.

Navarro-Cano JA, Karlsson B, Posledovich D, Toftegaard T, Wiklund C, Ehrlén J, Gotthard K - Ambio (2015)

Bottom Line: We conclude that A. cardamines is a phenological specialist but a host species generalist.This implies that thermal plasticity for spring development influences host utilization of the butterfly through effects on the phenological matching with its host plants.However, the host utilization strategy of A. cardamines appears to render it resilient to relatively large variation in climate.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, 106 91, Stockholm, Sweden, jose.a.navarro@uv.es.

ABSTRACT
Knowledge of how species interactions are influenced by climate warming is paramount to understand current biodiversity changes. We review phenological changes of Swedish butterflies during the latest decades and explore potential climate effects on butterfly-host plant interactions using the Orange tip butterfly Anthocharis cardamines and its host plants as a model system. This butterfly has advanced its appearance dates substantially, and its mean flight date shows a positive correlation with latitude. We show that there is a large latitudinal variation in host use and that butterfly populations select plant individuals based on their flowering phenology. We conclude that A. cardamines is a phenological specialist but a host species generalist. This implies that thermal plasticity for spring development influences host utilization of the butterfly through effects on the phenological matching with its host plants. However, the host utilization strategy of A. cardamines appears to render it resilient to relatively large variation in climate.

No MeSH data available.


The relationship between mean flight date and yearly change in flight date in a set of butterfly species in Sweden during 1991–2010, r = 0.49, P < 0.001 (cf. Table 1 in Karlsson 2013), symbols represent overwintering stage; squares adult, diamonds pupal, crosses larval, and dots egg. The focal butterfly species, Anthocharis cardamines, in this study is marked with an arrow. The different overwintering stages differ significantly in respect to degree of yearly change in flight date, F(3,62) = 5.779, P = 0.0015. Redrawn from Karlsson (2013)
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Fig2: The relationship between mean flight date and yearly change in flight date in a set of butterfly species in Sweden during 1991–2010, r = 0.49, P < 0.001 (cf. Table 1 in Karlsson 2013), symbols represent overwintering stage; squares adult, diamonds pupal, crosses larval, and dots egg. The focal butterfly species, Anthocharis cardamines, in this study is marked with an arrow. The different overwintering stages differ significantly in respect to degree of yearly change in flight date, F(3,62) = 5.779, P = 0.0015. Redrawn from Karlsson (2013)

Mentions: The average advancement of mean flight date of all 66 butterfly species was 0.36 days/year during the last two decades. Moreover, the mean flight date of the same investigated butterfly species showed a positive correlation with latitude (mean value is 1.20 days/degree of latitude). The advancement in mean flight date as well as the seasonal advancement at lower latitudes was both greater in A. cardamines than in the vast majority of other butterfly species in the region. It has advanced its mean flight dates during the last two decades with a mean value of 1.02 days/year, which is among the top three of all investigated butterfly species (Fig. 2). In addition, there are only 2 out of 66 species that show a steeper relationship between mean flight date and latitude than A. cardamines (3.41 days/degree of latitude).Fig. 2


Climate change, phenology, and butterfly host plant utilization.

Navarro-Cano JA, Karlsson B, Posledovich D, Toftegaard T, Wiklund C, Ehrlén J, Gotthard K - Ambio (2015)

The relationship between mean flight date and yearly change in flight date in a set of butterfly species in Sweden during 1991–2010, r = 0.49, P < 0.001 (cf. Table 1 in Karlsson 2013), symbols represent overwintering stage; squares adult, diamonds pupal, crosses larval, and dots egg. The focal butterfly species, Anthocharis cardamines, in this study is marked with an arrow. The different overwintering stages differ significantly in respect to degree of yearly change in flight date, F(3,62) = 5.779, P = 0.0015. Redrawn from Karlsson (2013)
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4289000&req=5

Fig2: The relationship between mean flight date and yearly change in flight date in a set of butterfly species in Sweden during 1991–2010, r = 0.49, P < 0.001 (cf. Table 1 in Karlsson 2013), symbols represent overwintering stage; squares adult, diamonds pupal, crosses larval, and dots egg. The focal butterfly species, Anthocharis cardamines, in this study is marked with an arrow. The different overwintering stages differ significantly in respect to degree of yearly change in flight date, F(3,62) = 5.779, P = 0.0015. Redrawn from Karlsson (2013)
Mentions: The average advancement of mean flight date of all 66 butterfly species was 0.36 days/year during the last two decades. Moreover, the mean flight date of the same investigated butterfly species showed a positive correlation with latitude (mean value is 1.20 days/degree of latitude). The advancement in mean flight date as well as the seasonal advancement at lower latitudes was both greater in A. cardamines than in the vast majority of other butterfly species in the region. It has advanced its mean flight dates during the last two decades with a mean value of 1.02 days/year, which is among the top three of all investigated butterfly species (Fig. 2). In addition, there are only 2 out of 66 species that show a steeper relationship between mean flight date and latitude than A. cardamines (3.41 days/degree of latitude).Fig. 2

Bottom Line: We conclude that A. cardamines is a phenological specialist but a host species generalist.This implies that thermal plasticity for spring development influences host utilization of the butterfly through effects on the phenological matching with its host plants.However, the host utilization strategy of A. cardamines appears to render it resilient to relatively large variation in climate.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, 106 91, Stockholm, Sweden, jose.a.navarro@uv.es.

ABSTRACT
Knowledge of how species interactions are influenced by climate warming is paramount to understand current biodiversity changes. We review phenological changes of Swedish butterflies during the latest decades and explore potential climate effects on butterfly-host plant interactions using the Orange tip butterfly Anthocharis cardamines and its host plants as a model system. This butterfly has advanced its appearance dates substantially, and its mean flight date shows a positive correlation with latitude. We show that there is a large latitudinal variation in host use and that butterfly populations select plant individuals based on their flowering phenology. We conclude that A. cardamines is a phenological specialist but a host species generalist. This implies that thermal plasticity for spring development influences host utilization of the butterfly through effects on the phenological matching with its host plants. However, the host utilization strategy of A. cardamines appears to render it resilient to relatively large variation in climate.

No MeSH data available.