Limits...
Climate change, phenology, and butterfly host plant utilization.

Navarro-Cano JA, Karlsson B, Posledovich D, Toftegaard T, Wiklund C, Ehrlén J, Gotthard K - Ambio (2015)

Bottom Line: We conclude that A. cardamines is a phenological specialist but a host species generalist.This implies that thermal plasticity for spring development influences host utilization of the butterfly through effects on the phenological matching with its host plants.However, the host utilization strategy of A. cardamines appears to render it resilient to relatively large variation in climate.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, 106 91, Stockholm, Sweden, jose.a.navarro@uv.es.

ABSTRACT
Knowledge of how species interactions are influenced by climate warming is paramount to understand current biodiversity changes. We review phenological changes of Swedish butterflies during the latest decades and explore potential climate effects on butterfly-host plant interactions using the Orange tip butterfly Anthocharis cardamines and its host plants as a model system. This butterfly has advanced its appearance dates substantially, and its mean flight date shows a positive correlation with latitude. We show that there is a large latitudinal variation in host use and that butterfly populations select plant individuals based on their flowering phenology. We conclude that A. cardamines is a phenological specialist but a host species generalist. This implies that thermal plasticity for spring development influences host utilization of the butterfly through effects on the phenological matching with its host plants. However, the host utilization strategy of A. cardamines appears to render it resilient to relatively large variation in climate.

No MeSH data available.


Anthocharis cardamines flying period and observation frequency (number of regional observations) in south (black line), central (dark gray line), and north (gray line) regions according to the 2010 “species gateway” data base (http://www.artportalen.se). Data were fitted to a Gaussian curve. Vertical dashed lines indicate the starting date of our samplings. Distribution map: Eliasson et al. (2005); Photograph by Christer Wiklund shows a male A. cardamines nectaring on Cardamine pratensis
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Fig1: Anthocharis cardamines flying period and observation frequency (number of regional observations) in south (black line), central (dark gray line), and north (gray line) regions according to the 2010 “species gateway” data base (http://www.artportalen.se). Data were fitted to a Gaussian curve. Vertical dashed lines indicate the starting date of our samplings. Distribution map: Eliasson et al. (2005); Photograph by Christer Wiklund shows a male A. cardamines nectaring on Cardamine pratensis

Mentions: The focal butterfly species in this study, the Orange-tip Anthocharis cardamines (Lepidoptera: Pieridae), and its host plant species constitute a particularly interesting model system to assess potential climate-dependent effects on host use. This butterfly is oligophagous on Brassicaceae using up to 17 different Brassicaceae species from 14 different genera within their range in Sweden (Wiklund and Åhrberg 1978; Arvanitis et al. 2007). The species is a phenological specialist in the sense that it feeds only on flowers and seedpods of its host, which are available for a period of approximately 1 month in spring at any given location in Sweden (Wiklund and Åhrberg 1978; Wiklund and Friberg 2009). As a result of its dependence of host plants that flower relatively early, A. cardamines flies early in the season (Fig. 1). Although both the butterfly and its host plants have a wide distribution in Europe, A. cardamines is obligatory univoltine and after larval development in spring, it pupates and enters diapause in early summer. Thus, the species spends most of the summer, and all of autumn and winter in the pupal stage.Fig. 1


Climate change, phenology, and butterfly host plant utilization.

Navarro-Cano JA, Karlsson B, Posledovich D, Toftegaard T, Wiklund C, Ehrlén J, Gotthard K - Ambio (2015)

Anthocharis cardamines flying period and observation frequency (number of regional observations) in south (black line), central (dark gray line), and north (gray line) regions according to the 2010 “species gateway” data base (http://www.artportalen.se). Data were fitted to a Gaussian curve. Vertical dashed lines indicate the starting date of our samplings. Distribution map: Eliasson et al. (2005); Photograph by Christer Wiklund shows a male A. cardamines nectaring on Cardamine pratensis
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4289000&req=5

Fig1: Anthocharis cardamines flying period and observation frequency (number of regional observations) in south (black line), central (dark gray line), and north (gray line) regions according to the 2010 “species gateway” data base (http://www.artportalen.se). Data were fitted to a Gaussian curve. Vertical dashed lines indicate the starting date of our samplings. Distribution map: Eliasson et al. (2005); Photograph by Christer Wiklund shows a male A. cardamines nectaring on Cardamine pratensis
Mentions: The focal butterfly species in this study, the Orange-tip Anthocharis cardamines (Lepidoptera: Pieridae), and its host plant species constitute a particularly interesting model system to assess potential climate-dependent effects on host use. This butterfly is oligophagous on Brassicaceae using up to 17 different Brassicaceae species from 14 different genera within their range in Sweden (Wiklund and Åhrberg 1978; Arvanitis et al. 2007). The species is a phenological specialist in the sense that it feeds only on flowers and seedpods of its host, which are available for a period of approximately 1 month in spring at any given location in Sweden (Wiklund and Åhrberg 1978; Wiklund and Friberg 2009). As a result of its dependence of host plants that flower relatively early, A. cardamines flies early in the season (Fig. 1). Although both the butterfly and its host plants have a wide distribution in Europe, A. cardamines is obligatory univoltine and after larval development in spring, it pupates and enters diapause in early summer. Thus, the species spends most of the summer, and all of autumn and winter in the pupal stage.Fig. 1

Bottom Line: We conclude that A. cardamines is a phenological specialist but a host species generalist.This implies that thermal plasticity for spring development influences host utilization of the butterfly through effects on the phenological matching with its host plants.However, the host utilization strategy of A. cardamines appears to render it resilient to relatively large variation in climate.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, 106 91, Stockholm, Sweden, jose.a.navarro@uv.es.

ABSTRACT
Knowledge of how species interactions are influenced by climate warming is paramount to understand current biodiversity changes. We review phenological changes of Swedish butterflies during the latest decades and explore potential climate effects on butterfly-host plant interactions using the Orange tip butterfly Anthocharis cardamines and its host plants as a model system. This butterfly has advanced its appearance dates substantially, and its mean flight date shows a positive correlation with latitude. We show that there is a large latitudinal variation in host use and that butterfly populations select plant individuals based on their flowering phenology. We conclude that A. cardamines is a phenological specialist but a host species generalist. This implies that thermal plasticity for spring development influences host utilization of the butterfly through effects on the phenological matching with its host plants. However, the host utilization strategy of A. cardamines appears to render it resilient to relatively large variation in climate.

No MeSH data available.