Limits...
Climate change effects on the Baltic Sea borderland between land and sea.

Strandmark A, Bring A, Cousins SA, Destouni G, Kautsky H, Kolb G, de la Torre-Castro M, Hambäck PA - Ambio (2015)

Bottom Line: Since habitats along the Baltic coastlines vary in hydrology, natural geography, and ecology, climate change projections for Baltic shore ecosystems are bound to be highly speculative.Societal responses to climate change in the Baltic coastal ecosystems should have an ecosystem approach and match the biophysical realities of the Baltic Sea area.Knowledge about ecosystem processes and their responses to a changing climate should be integrated within the decision process, both locally and nationally, in order to increase the awareness of, and to prepare for climate change impacts in coastal areas of the Baltic Sea.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, 106 91, Stockholm, Sweden, alma.strandmark@su.se.

ABSTRACT
Coastal habitats are situated on the border between land and sea, and ecosystem structure and functioning is influenced by both marine and terrestrial processes. Despite this, most scientific studies and monitoring are conducted either with a terrestrial or an aquatic focus. To address issues concerning climate change impacts in coastal areas, a cross-ecosystem approach is necessary. Since habitats along the Baltic coastlines vary in hydrology, natural geography, and ecology, climate change projections for Baltic shore ecosystems are bound to be highly speculative. Societal responses to climate change in the Baltic coastal ecosystems should have an ecosystem approach and match the biophysical realities of the Baltic Sea area. Knowledge about ecosystem processes and their responses to a changing climate should be integrated within the decision process, both locally and nationally, in order to increase the awareness of, and to prepare for climate change impacts in coastal areas of the Baltic Sea.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

a A typical shore habitat in the Bothnian Bay. Vegetation is usually low and signs of ice scouring can be seen on the trees; b The typical fragmented landscape in a Baltic archipelago around Stockholm. Small shore meadows are bordered by forest, bedrock, or open water
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Fig4: a A typical shore habitat in the Bothnian Bay. Vegetation is usually low and signs of ice scouring can be seen on the trees; b The typical fragmented landscape in a Baltic archipelago around Stockholm. Small shore meadows are bordered by forest, bedrock, or open water

Mentions: Shores along the Baltic Sea vary greatly both among and within regions, but some general patterns are apparent. North of Åland, Swedish shores are typically flat and heavily ice scoured during winter (Fig. 4a), particularly in exposed areas. The long flat shores show a distinct successional gradient from grasses close to the water and herbs and shrubs closer to the forest (Ericson 1980). South of Åland, particularly in the area around Stockholm, rocky shores are common with little or no loose material. Plant communities typically vary with the steepness of the shore. On rocky, steep slopes, where wave action removes finer materials, lichens dominate, with taller plants in crevices (Jerling 1999). On more protected shores, where organic and fine-grained inorganic material has accumulated, the vegetation is more diverse, including species-rich shore meadows (Fig. 4b). Relatively flat shore meadows were used for grazing for a very long time, but today few shore meadows are managed. Since managed shore meadows have a much higher number of plant species than abandoned meadows (Cousins et al. 2015), ceased grazing has reduced species diversity.Fig. 4


Climate change effects on the Baltic Sea borderland between land and sea.

Strandmark A, Bring A, Cousins SA, Destouni G, Kautsky H, Kolb G, de la Torre-Castro M, Hambäck PA - Ambio (2015)

a A typical shore habitat in the Bothnian Bay. Vegetation is usually low and signs of ice scouring can be seen on the trees; b The typical fragmented landscape in a Baltic archipelago around Stockholm. Small shore meadows are bordered by forest, bedrock, or open water
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4288993&req=5

Fig4: a A typical shore habitat in the Bothnian Bay. Vegetation is usually low and signs of ice scouring can be seen on the trees; b The typical fragmented landscape in a Baltic archipelago around Stockholm. Small shore meadows are bordered by forest, bedrock, or open water
Mentions: Shores along the Baltic Sea vary greatly both among and within regions, but some general patterns are apparent. North of Åland, Swedish shores are typically flat and heavily ice scoured during winter (Fig. 4a), particularly in exposed areas. The long flat shores show a distinct successional gradient from grasses close to the water and herbs and shrubs closer to the forest (Ericson 1980). South of Åland, particularly in the area around Stockholm, rocky shores are common with little or no loose material. Plant communities typically vary with the steepness of the shore. On rocky, steep slopes, where wave action removes finer materials, lichens dominate, with taller plants in crevices (Jerling 1999). On more protected shores, where organic and fine-grained inorganic material has accumulated, the vegetation is more diverse, including species-rich shore meadows (Fig. 4b). Relatively flat shore meadows were used for grazing for a very long time, but today few shore meadows are managed. Since managed shore meadows have a much higher number of plant species than abandoned meadows (Cousins et al. 2015), ceased grazing has reduced species diversity.Fig. 4

Bottom Line: Since habitats along the Baltic coastlines vary in hydrology, natural geography, and ecology, climate change projections for Baltic shore ecosystems are bound to be highly speculative.Societal responses to climate change in the Baltic coastal ecosystems should have an ecosystem approach and match the biophysical realities of the Baltic Sea area.Knowledge about ecosystem processes and their responses to a changing climate should be integrated within the decision process, both locally and nationally, in order to increase the awareness of, and to prepare for climate change impacts in coastal areas of the Baltic Sea.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, 106 91, Stockholm, Sweden, alma.strandmark@su.se.

ABSTRACT
Coastal habitats are situated on the border between land and sea, and ecosystem structure and functioning is influenced by both marine and terrestrial processes. Despite this, most scientific studies and monitoring are conducted either with a terrestrial or an aquatic focus. To address issues concerning climate change impacts in coastal areas, a cross-ecosystem approach is necessary. Since habitats along the Baltic coastlines vary in hydrology, natural geography, and ecology, climate change projections for Baltic shore ecosystems are bound to be highly speculative. Societal responses to climate change in the Baltic coastal ecosystems should have an ecosystem approach and match the biophysical realities of the Baltic Sea area. Knowledge about ecosystem processes and their responses to a changing climate should be integrated within the decision process, both locally and nationally, in order to increase the awareness of, and to prepare for climate change impacts in coastal areas of the Baltic Sea.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus