Limits...
Climate change effects on the Baltic Sea borderland between land and sea.

Strandmark A, Bring A, Cousins SA, Destouni G, Kautsky H, Kolb G, de la Torre-Castro M, Hambäck PA - Ambio (2015)

Bottom Line: Since habitats along the Baltic coastlines vary in hydrology, natural geography, and ecology, climate change projections for Baltic shore ecosystems are bound to be highly speculative.Societal responses to climate change in the Baltic coastal ecosystems should have an ecosystem approach and match the biophysical realities of the Baltic Sea area.Knowledge about ecosystem processes and their responses to a changing climate should be integrated within the decision process, both locally and nationally, in order to increase the awareness of, and to prepare for climate change impacts in coastal areas of the Baltic Sea.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, 106 91, Stockholm, Sweden, alma.strandmark@su.se.

ABSTRACT
Coastal habitats are situated on the border between land and sea, and ecosystem structure and functioning is influenced by both marine and terrestrial processes. Despite this, most scientific studies and monitoring are conducted either with a terrestrial or an aquatic focus. To address issues concerning climate change impacts in coastal areas, a cross-ecosystem approach is necessary. Since habitats along the Baltic coastlines vary in hydrology, natural geography, and ecology, climate change projections for Baltic shore ecosystems are bound to be highly speculative. Societal responses to climate change in the Baltic coastal ecosystems should have an ecosystem approach and match the biophysical realities of the Baltic Sea area. Knowledge about ecosystem processes and their responses to a changing climate should be integrated within the decision process, both locally and nationally, in order to increase the awareness of, and to prepare for climate change impacts in coastal areas of the Baltic Sea.

No MeSH data available.


Baltic Sea drainage basin (shown in brown) with subareas, here including the Danish Straits and Kattegatt. An example of a water management district in Sweden, the Northern Baltic Proper, is coloredred, with the coastal boundary in blue. The example of water management district, administratively formed as part of the national Swedish implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive, illustrates that the coastal water falls within the terrestrial domain of water management, with the district boundary extending between 5 and 50 km from the coast. Lines across the Baltic Sea illustrate the approximate position of the line of equilibrium between isostatic rebound and SLR, for the present situation of a sea level rise rate of around 3 mm year−1 (solidline), and potential future higher rates of 4 mm year−1 (dashedline) and 5 mm year−1 (dottedline)
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Fig1: Baltic Sea drainage basin (shown in brown) with subareas, here including the Danish Straits and Kattegatt. An example of a water management district in Sweden, the Northern Baltic Proper, is coloredred, with the coastal boundary in blue. The example of water management district, administratively formed as part of the national Swedish implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive, illustrates that the coastal water falls within the terrestrial domain of water management, with the district boundary extending between 5 and 50 km from the coast. Lines across the Baltic Sea illustrate the approximate position of the line of equilibrium between isostatic rebound and SLR, for the present situation of a sea level rise rate of around 3 mm year−1 (solidline), and potential future higher rates of 4 mm year−1 (dashedline) and 5 mm year−1 (dottedline)

Mentions: Since the last Ice Age, 10 000 years ago, isostatic rebound has caused the shores of the Baltic Sea to fall in conjunction with land uplift (Ekman 1996). The highest rate of isostatic rebound, in the Bothnian Sea (Fig. 1), is close to 1 cm per year, presently outpacing most of the projected range of sea level rise (SLR) for the Baltic Sea. At the most extreme climate scenarios, however, the uplift rate will not compensate for the SLR by the end of the century. The constant renewal of the shoreline caused by the land uplift is a natural process that has occurred for thousands of years. Since both vegetation and landscapes on most Baltic Sea shores are strongly shaped by land uplift and the continuous colonization of new land, the conditions will fundamentally change if this process is reversed. The Baltic Sea is unique for its sharp latitudinal salinity gradient. Large inflows of freshwater from the rivers in the north reduce the salinity, while saltwater inflows through the Danish straits from the North Sea increase the salinity in the south. Ice scouring is another important shore process in the northern and central parts of the Baltic that most likely will change in occurrence and intensity due to a combination of SLR and warmer winters. These features make the Baltic Sea a particularly interesting case for exploring climate change effects on shores.Fig. 1


Climate change effects on the Baltic Sea borderland between land and sea.

Strandmark A, Bring A, Cousins SA, Destouni G, Kautsky H, Kolb G, de la Torre-Castro M, Hambäck PA - Ambio (2015)

Baltic Sea drainage basin (shown in brown) with subareas, here including the Danish Straits and Kattegatt. An example of a water management district in Sweden, the Northern Baltic Proper, is coloredred, with the coastal boundary in blue. The example of water management district, administratively formed as part of the national Swedish implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive, illustrates that the coastal water falls within the terrestrial domain of water management, with the district boundary extending between 5 and 50 km from the coast. Lines across the Baltic Sea illustrate the approximate position of the line of equilibrium between isostatic rebound and SLR, for the present situation of a sea level rise rate of around 3 mm year−1 (solidline), and potential future higher rates of 4 mm year−1 (dashedline) and 5 mm year−1 (dottedline)
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4288993&req=5

Fig1: Baltic Sea drainage basin (shown in brown) with subareas, here including the Danish Straits and Kattegatt. An example of a water management district in Sweden, the Northern Baltic Proper, is coloredred, with the coastal boundary in blue. The example of water management district, administratively formed as part of the national Swedish implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive, illustrates that the coastal water falls within the terrestrial domain of water management, with the district boundary extending between 5 and 50 km from the coast. Lines across the Baltic Sea illustrate the approximate position of the line of equilibrium between isostatic rebound and SLR, for the present situation of a sea level rise rate of around 3 mm year−1 (solidline), and potential future higher rates of 4 mm year−1 (dashedline) and 5 mm year−1 (dottedline)
Mentions: Since the last Ice Age, 10 000 years ago, isostatic rebound has caused the shores of the Baltic Sea to fall in conjunction with land uplift (Ekman 1996). The highest rate of isostatic rebound, in the Bothnian Sea (Fig. 1), is close to 1 cm per year, presently outpacing most of the projected range of sea level rise (SLR) for the Baltic Sea. At the most extreme climate scenarios, however, the uplift rate will not compensate for the SLR by the end of the century. The constant renewal of the shoreline caused by the land uplift is a natural process that has occurred for thousands of years. Since both vegetation and landscapes on most Baltic Sea shores are strongly shaped by land uplift and the continuous colonization of new land, the conditions will fundamentally change if this process is reversed. The Baltic Sea is unique for its sharp latitudinal salinity gradient. Large inflows of freshwater from the rivers in the north reduce the salinity, while saltwater inflows through the Danish straits from the North Sea increase the salinity in the south. Ice scouring is another important shore process in the northern and central parts of the Baltic that most likely will change in occurrence and intensity due to a combination of SLR and warmer winters. These features make the Baltic Sea a particularly interesting case for exploring climate change effects on shores.Fig. 1

Bottom Line: Since habitats along the Baltic coastlines vary in hydrology, natural geography, and ecology, climate change projections for Baltic shore ecosystems are bound to be highly speculative.Societal responses to climate change in the Baltic coastal ecosystems should have an ecosystem approach and match the biophysical realities of the Baltic Sea area.Knowledge about ecosystem processes and their responses to a changing climate should be integrated within the decision process, both locally and nationally, in order to increase the awareness of, and to prepare for climate change impacts in coastal areas of the Baltic Sea.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, 106 91, Stockholm, Sweden, alma.strandmark@su.se.

ABSTRACT
Coastal habitats are situated on the border between land and sea, and ecosystem structure and functioning is influenced by both marine and terrestrial processes. Despite this, most scientific studies and monitoring are conducted either with a terrestrial or an aquatic focus. To address issues concerning climate change impacts in coastal areas, a cross-ecosystem approach is necessary. Since habitats along the Baltic coastlines vary in hydrology, natural geography, and ecology, climate change projections for Baltic shore ecosystems are bound to be highly speculative. Societal responses to climate change in the Baltic coastal ecosystems should have an ecosystem approach and match the biophysical realities of the Baltic Sea area. Knowledge about ecosystem processes and their responses to a changing climate should be integrated within the decision process, both locally and nationally, in order to increase the awareness of, and to prepare for climate change impacts in coastal areas of the Baltic Sea.

No MeSH data available.