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Diurnal patterns of productivity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi revealed with the Soil Ecosystem Observatory.

Hernandez RR, Allen MF - New Phytol. (2013)

Bottom Line: AM fungal hyphae showed significantly different rates of growth and dieback over a period of 24 h and paralleled the circadian-driven photosynthetic oscillations observed in plants.Growth and dieback events often occurred simultaneously and were tightly coupled with soil temperature and moisture, suggesting a rapid acclimation of the external phase of AM fungi to the immediate environment.Changes in the environmental conditions and variability of the mycorrhizosphere may alter the diurnal patterns of productivity of AM fungi, thereby modifying soil carbon sequestration, nutrient cycling and host plant success.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Environmental Earth System Science, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, 94305, USA; Department of Global Ecology, Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford, CA, 94305, USA; Center for Conservation Biology, University of California, Riverside, CA, 92521, USA.

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Mean relative diurnal (a) productivity (gray circles; μm mm−3 soil h−1) and rates of (b) growth (green circles) and dieback (brown circles) as a function of the mean photosynthetic photon flux density (gray circles; μmol m−2 soil s−1) during four 6-h intervals within a 24-h day: 00:00–05:59 h (I), 06:00–11:59 h (II), 12:00–17:59 h (III) and 18:00–23:59 h (IV). Circle size is proportional and indicative of the number of growth and dieback events (i.e. independent of the rate of change; gray, both growth and dieback events; green, growth events; brown, dieback events) of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal hyphae throughout the four day : night intervals.
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fig04: Mean relative diurnal (a) productivity (gray circles; μm mm−3 soil h−1) and rates of (b) growth (green circles) and dieback (brown circles) as a function of the mean photosynthetic photon flux density (gray circles; μmol m−2 soil s−1) during four 6-h intervals within a 24-h day: 00:00–05:59 h (I), 06:00–11:59 h (II), 12:00–17:59 h (III) and 18:00–23:59 h (IV). Circle size is proportional and indicative of the number of growth and dieback events (i.e. independent of the rate of change; gray, both growth and dieback events; green, growth events; brown, dieback events) of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal hyphae throughout the four day : night intervals.

Mentions: We also found that the frequency (i.e. counts) of growth and dieback events was significantly different across the four 6-h day : night intervals, independent of the rate of change (Fig.4a; χ2 = 31.803, df = 3, P < 0.0001). The greatest activity – in both directions (i.e. growth and dieback) – was observed in intervals III (12:00–17:59 h) and IV (18:00–23:59 h), whereas only 10.0% of all activity was observed in interval II. Analyzed separately, growth and dieback events showed the same pattern across the 6-h intervals, where the greatest number of events occurred during intervals III and IV, and the least in interval II (Fig.4b; χ2 = 16.694, df = 3, P < 0.0008 and χ2 = 19.679, df = 3, P < 0.0002, respectively).


Diurnal patterns of productivity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi revealed with the Soil Ecosystem Observatory.

Hernandez RR, Allen MF - New Phytol. (2013)

Mean relative diurnal (a) productivity (gray circles; μm mm−3 soil h−1) and rates of (b) growth (green circles) and dieback (brown circles) as a function of the mean photosynthetic photon flux density (gray circles; μmol m−2 soil s−1) during four 6-h intervals within a 24-h day: 00:00–05:59 h (I), 06:00–11:59 h (II), 12:00–17:59 h (III) and 18:00–23:59 h (IV). Circle size is proportional and indicative of the number of growth and dieback events (i.e. independent of the rate of change; gray, both growth and dieback events; green, growth events; brown, dieback events) of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal hyphae throughout the four day : night intervals.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4288973&req=5

fig04: Mean relative diurnal (a) productivity (gray circles; μm mm−3 soil h−1) and rates of (b) growth (green circles) and dieback (brown circles) as a function of the mean photosynthetic photon flux density (gray circles; μmol m−2 soil s−1) during four 6-h intervals within a 24-h day: 00:00–05:59 h (I), 06:00–11:59 h (II), 12:00–17:59 h (III) and 18:00–23:59 h (IV). Circle size is proportional and indicative of the number of growth and dieback events (i.e. independent of the rate of change; gray, both growth and dieback events; green, growth events; brown, dieback events) of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal hyphae throughout the four day : night intervals.
Mentions: We also found that the frequency (i.e. counts) of growth and dieback events was significantly different across the four 6-h day : night intervals, independent of the rate of change (Fig.4a; χ2 = 31.803, df = 3, P < 0.0001). The greatest activity – in both directions (i.e. growth and dieback) – was observed in intervals III (12:00–17:59 h) and IV (18:00–23:59 h), whereas only 10.0% of all activity was observed in interval II. Analyzed separately, growth and dieback events showed the same pattern across the 6-h intervals, where the greatest number of events occurred during intervals III and IV, and the least in interval II (Fig.4b; χ2 = 16.694, df = 3, P < 0.0008 and χ2 = 19.679, df = 3, P < 0.0002, respectively).

Bottom Line: AM fungal hyphae showed significantly different rates of growth and dieback over a period of 24 h and paralleled the circadian-driven photosynthetic oscillations observed in plants.Growth and dieback events often occurred simultaneously and were tightly coupled with soil temperature and moisture, suggesting a rapid acclimation of the external phase of AM fungi to the immediate environment.Changes in the environmental conditions and variability of the mycorrhizosphere may alter the diurnal patterns of productivity of AM fungi, thereby modifying soil carbon sequestration, nutrient cycling and host plant success.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Environmental Earth System Science, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, 94305, USA; Department of Global Ecology, Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford, CA, 94305, USA; Center for Conservation Biology, University of California, Riverside, CA, 92521, USA.

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