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Flower development of Phalaenopsis orchid involves functionally divergent SEPALLATA-like genes.

Pan ZJ, Chen YY, Du JS, Chen YY, Chung MC, Tsai WC, Wang CN, Chen HH - New Phytol. (2014)

Bottom Line: The tepal became a leaf-like organ when PeSEP3 was silenced by virus-induced silencing, with alterations in epidermis identity and contents of anthocyanin and chlorophyll.Silencing of the E-class genes PeSEP2 and PeSEP3 resulted in the downregulation of B-class PeMADS2-6 genes, which indicates an association of PeSEP functions and B-class gene expression.These findings reveal the important roles of PeSEP in Phalaenopsis floral organ formation throughout the developmental process by the formation of various multiple protein complexes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Life Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 701, Taiwan.

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Expression profiles of E-class MADS-box genes in PeSEP-silenced Phalaenopsis. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of mRNA levels of PeSEP1–4 in sepal (Se), petal (Pe) and lip (Lip) of flowers of (a–d) mock and PeSEP3s-, PeSEP3 m- and PeSEP2-silenced P. I-Hsin Sunrise Cinderella and of flowers of (e–h) mock and PeSEP2/3-silenced P. OX Red Shoes. Error bars: ± SD. Numbers above the bars are expression levels after normalization with internal control (PeActin4).
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fig09: Expression profiles of E-class MADS-box genes in PeSEP-silenced Phalaenopsis. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of mRNA levels of PeSEP1–4 in sepal (Se), petal (Pe) and lip (Lip) of flowers of (a–d) mock and PeSEP3s-, PeSEP3 m- and PeSEP2-silenced P. I-Hsin Sunrise Cinderella and of flowers of (e–h) mock and PeSEP2/3-silenced P. OX Red Shoes. Error bars: ± SD. Numbers above the bars are expression levels after normalization with internal control (PeActin4).

Mentions: Given the close phylogenetic relationship and divergent expression patterns of PeSEPs, we explored the functions of these PeSEP genes by VIGS. To assess the possible redundant functions among various PeSEP genes, we generated the PeSEP2/3-silenced line with simultaneously silenced transcripts of PeSEP2 and PeSEP3. We observed several pronounced phenotypes of morphological changes in blooming flowers at c. 45 d after infection (DAI), with no vegetative growth retardation and abnormalities in flowering time or inflorescence determinacy. Most flowers in PeSEP-silenced plants were abnormal to various degrees (Fig.5). The knockdown levels of PeSEP genes were strongly related to the degree of flower abnormality in PeSEP-silenced lines (see Figs 9, 10).


Flower development of Phalaenopsis orchid involves functionally divergent SEPALLATA-like genes.

Pan ZJ, Chen YY, Du JS, Chen YY, Chung MC, Tsai WC, Wang CN, Chen HH - New Phytol. (2014)

Expression profiles of E-class MADS-box genes in PeSEP-silenced Phalaenopsis. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of mRNA levels of PeSEP1–4 in sepal (Se), petal (Pe) and lip (Lip) of flowers of (a–d) mock and PeSEP3s-, PeSEP3 m- and PeSEP2-silenced P. I-Hsin Sunrise Cinderella and of flowers of (e–h) mock and PeSEP2/3-silenced P. OX Red Shoes. Error bars: ± SD. Numbers above the bars are expression levels after normalization with internal control (PeActin4).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4288972&req=5

fig09: Expression profiles of E-class MADS-box genes in PeSEP-silenced Phalaenopsis. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of mRNA levels of PeSEP1–4 in sepal (Se), petal (Pe) and lip (Lip) of flowers of (a–d) mock and PeSEP3s-, PeSEP3 m- and PeSEP2-silenced P. I-Hsin Sunrise Cinderella and of flowers of (e–h) mock and PeSEP2/3-silenced P. OX Red Shoes. Error bars: ± SD. Numbers above the bars are expression levels after normalization with internal control (PeActin4).
Mentions: Given the close phylogenetic relationship and divergent expression patterns of PeSEPs, we explored the functions of these PeSEP genes by VIGS. To assess the possible redundant functions among various PeSEP genes, we generated the PeSEP2/3-silenced line with simultaneously silenced transcripts of PeSEP2 and PeSEP3. We observed several pronounced phenotypes of morphological changes in blooming flowers at c. 45 d after infection (DAI), with no vegetative growth retardation and abnormalities in flowering time or inflorescence determinacy. Most flowers in PeSEP-silenced plants were abnormal to various degrees (Fig.5). The knockdown levels of PeSEP genes were strongly related to the degree of flower abnormality in PeSEP-silenced lines (see Figs 9, 10).

Bottom Line: The tepal became a leaf-like organ when PeSEP3 was silenced by virus-induced silencing, with alterations in epidermis identity and contents of anthocyanin and chlorophyll.Silencing of the E-class genes PeSEP2 and PeSEP3 resulted in the downregulation of B-class PeMADS2-6 genes, which indicates an association of PeSEP functions and B-class gene expression.These findings reveal the important roles of PeSEP in Phalaenopsis floral organ formation throughout the developmental process by the formation of various multiple protein complexes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Life Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 701, Taiwan.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus