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Flower development of Phalaenopsis orchid involves functionally divergent SEPALLATA-like genes.

Pan ZJ, Chen YY, Du JS, Chen YY, Chung MC, Tsai WC, Wang CN, Chen HH - New Phytol. (2014)

Bottom Line: The tepal became a leaf-like organ when PeSEP3 was silenced by virus-induced silencing, with alterations in epidermis identity and contents of anthocyanin and chlorophyll.Silencing of the E-class genes PeSEP2 and PeSEP3 resulted in the downregulation of B-class PeMADS2-6 genes, which indicates an association of PeSEP functions and B-class gene expression.These findings reveal the important roles of PeSEP in Phalaenopsis floral organ formation throughout the developmental process by the formation of various multiple protein complexes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Life Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 701, Taiwan.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Phenotype changes of PeSEP-silenced flowers in PhalaenopsisOX Red Shoes. (a, b) Flowers of PeSEP-silenced plants show morphological phenotypes of various degrees. From left to right: severe, mild, weak and normal. (c) Green leaf-like tissues and bleaching patches (white arrowheads) in sepals of PeSEP3-silenced flower. White arrowheads show bleaching in sepals and the central lobe of the lip. (d) Chlorophyll in epidermal and parenchyma cells of PeSEP3-silenced greenish perianth. (e) Anthocyanin accumulated at the tips of sepals and petals (blue arrows). (f, g) Lips showing purple–red color from normal flowers and bleached coloration (white arrowhead) from mutated flowers. (h, i) Increased total chlorophyll and slightly decreased anthocyanin contents of SEP3-, PeSEP2- and PeSEP2/3-silenced flowers. Senescent flowers from (j) mock-treated and (k) PeSEP3-silenced plants after 45 and 60 d of blooming. (l–o) Normal and gradually mutated flowers displaying normal, severe (s), mild (m) and weak (w) phenotypes on the floral stalks of mock-treated, SEP3-, PeSEP2- and PeSEP2/3-silenced plants. (p, t) Normal flowers observed on mock and PeSEP2-silenced plants. Severe, mild and weak flowers from (q–s) PeSEP3- and (u–w) PeSEP2/3-silenced plants. Yellow and blue arrows show greenish regions and anthocyanin accumulation in sepals and petals. Bars: 1 cm.
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fig05: Phenotype changes of PeSEP-silenced flowers in PhalaenopsisOX Red Shoes. (a, b) Flowers of PeSEP-silenced plants show morphological phenotypes of various degrees. From left to right: severe, mild, weak and normal. (c) Green leaf-like tissues and bleaching patches (white arrowheads) in sepals of PeSEP3-silenced flower. White arrowheads show bleaching in sepals and the central lobe of the lip. (d) Chlorophyll in epidermal and parenchyma cells of PeSEP3-silenced greenish perianth. (e) Anthocyanin accumulated at the tips of sepals and petals (blue arrows). (f, g) Lips showing purple–red color from normal flowers and bleached coloration (white arrowhead) from mutated flowers. (h, i) Increased total chlorophyll and slightly decreased anthocyanin contents of SEP3-, PeSEP2- and PeSEP2/3-silenced flowers. Senescent flowers from (j) mock-treated and (k) PeSEP3-silenced plants after 45 and 60 d of blooming. (l–o) Normal and gradually mutated flowers displaying normal, severe (s), mild (m) and weak (w) phenotypes on the floral stalks of mock-treated, SEP3-, PeSEP2- and PeSEP2/3-silenced plants. (p, t) Normal flowers observed on mock and PeSEP2-silenced plants. Severe, mild and weak flowers from (q–s) PeSEP3- and (u–w) PeSEP2/3-silenced plants. Yellow and blue arrows show greenish regions and anthocyanin accumulation in sepals and petals. Bars: 1 cm.

Mentions: Given the close phylogenetic relationship and divergent expression patterns of PeSEPs, we explored the functions of these PeSEP genes by VIGS. To assess the possible redundant functions among various PeSEP genes, we generated the PeSEP2/3-silenced line with simultaneously silenced transcripts of PeSEP2 and PeSEP3. We observed several pronounced phenotypes of morphological changes in blooming flowers at c. 45 d after infection (DAI), with no vegetative growth retardation and abnormalities in flowering time or inflorescence determinacy. Most flowers in PeSEP-silenced plants were abnormal to various degrees (Fig.5). The knockdown levels of PeSEP genes were strongly related to the degree of flower abnormality in PeSEP-silenced lines (see Figs 9, 10).


Flower development of Phalaenopsis orchid involves functionally divergent SEPALLATA-like genes.

Pan ZJ, Chen YY, Du JS, Chen YY, Chung MC, Tsai WC, Wang CN, Chen HH - New Phytol. (2014)

Phenotype changes of PeSEP-silenced flowers in PhalaenopsisOX Red Shoes. (a, b) Flowers of PeSEP-silenced plants show morphological phenotypes of various degrees. From left to right: severe, mild, weak and normal. (c) Green leaf-like tissues and bleaching patches (white arrowheads) in sepals of PeSEP3-silenced flower. White arrowheads show bleaching in sepals and the central lobe of the lip. (d) Chlorophyll in epidermal and parenchyma cells of PeSEP3-silenced greenish perianth. (e) Anthocyanin accumulated at the tips of sepals and petals (blue arrows). (f, g) Lips showing purple–red color from normal flowers and bleached coloration (white arrowhead) from mutated flowers. (h, i) Increased total chlorophyll and slightly decreased anthocyanin contents of SEP3-, PeSEP2- and PeSEP2/3-silenced flowers. Senescent flowers from (j) mock-treated and (k) PeSEP3-silenced plants after 45 and 60 d of blooming. (l–o) Normal and gradually mutated flowers displaying normal, severe (s), mild (m) and weak (w) phenotypes on the floral stalks of mock-treated, SEP3-, PeSEP2- and PeSEP2/3-silenced plants. (p, t) Normal flowers observed on mock and PeSEP2-silenced plants. Severe, mild and weak flowers from (q–s) PeSEP3- and (u–w) PeSEP2/3-silenced plants. Yellow and blue arrows show greenish regions and anthocyanin accumulation in sepals and petals. Bars: 1 cm.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4288972&req=5

fig05: Phenotype changes of PeSEP-silenced flowers in PhalaenopsisOX Red Shoes. (a, b) Flowers of PeSEP-silenced plants show morphological phenotypes of various degrees. From left to right: severe, mild, weak and normal. (c) Green leaf-like tissues and bleaching patches (white arrowheads) in sepals of PeSEP3-silenced flower. White arrowheads show bleaching in sepals and the central lobe of the lip. (d) Chlorophyll in epidermal and parenchyma cells of PeSEP3-silenced greenish perianth. (e) Anthocyanin accumulated at the tips of sepals and petals (blue arrows). (f, g) Lips showing purple–red color from normal flowers and bleached coloration (white arrowhead) from mutated flowers. (h, i) Increased total chlorophyll and slightly decreased anthocyanin contents of SEP3-, PeSEP2- and PeSEP2/3-silenced flowers. Senescent flowers from (j) mock-treated and (k) PeSEP3-silenced plants after 45 and 60 d of blooming. (l–o) Normal and gradually mutated flowers displaying normal, severe (s), mild (m) and weak (w) phenotypes on the floral stalks of mock-treated, SEP3-, PeSEP2- and PeSEP2/3-silenced plants. (p, t) Normal flowers observed on mock and PeSEP2-silenced plants. Severe, mild and weak flowers from (q–s) PeSEP3- and (u–w) PeSEP2/3-silenced plants. Yellow and blue arrows show greenish regions and anthocyanin accumulation in sepals and petals. Bars: 1 cm.
Mentions: Given the close phylogenetic relationship and divergent expression patterns of PeSEPs, we explored the functions of these PeSEP genes by VIGS. To assess the possible redundant functions among various PeSEP genes, we generated the PeSEP2/3-silenced line with simultaneously silenced transcripts of PeSEP2 and PeSEP3. We observed several pronounced phenotypes of morphological changes in blooming flowers at c. 45 d after infection (DAI), with no vegetative growth retardation and abnormalities in flowering time or inflorescence determinacy. Most flowers in PeSEP-silenced plants were abnormal to various degrees (Fig.5). The knockdown levels of PeSEP genes were strongly related to the degree of flower abnormality in PeSEP-silenced lines (see Figs 9, 10).

Bottom Line: The tepal became a leaf-like organ when PeSEP3 was silenced by virus-induced silencing, with alterations in epidermis identity and contents of anthocyanin and chlorophyll.Silencing of the E-class genes PeSEP2 and PeSEP3 resulted in the downregulation of B-class PeMADS2-6 genes, which indicates an association of PeSEP functions and B-class gene expression.These findings reveal the important roles of PeSEP in Phalaenopsis floral organ formation throughout the developmental process by the formation of various multiple protein complexes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Life Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 701, Taiwan.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus