Modeling of time dependent localized flow shear stress and its impact on cellular growth within additive manufactured titanium implants.
Bottom Line: The model's effectiveness is demonstrated for two additive manufactured (AM) titanium scaffold architectures.The results demonstrate that there is a complex interaction of flow rate and strut architecture, resulting in partially randomized structures having a preferential impact on stimulating cell migration in 3D porous structures for higher flow rates.This novel result demonstrates the potential new insights that can be gained via the modeling tool developed, and how the model can be used to perform what-if simulations to design AM structures to specific functional requirements.
Affiliation: Department of Materials, Imperial College London, London, SW7 2AZ, UK.Show MeSH
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Mentions: Figure 2 shows the schematic of the boundary and initial conditions used in the simulations. A fully liquid region was placed up- and downstream to act as a fluid buffering zone and to allow the flow to stablize on the upstream and downstream flow faces. Up/downstream end faces of the buffer zone in the desired flow direction were set as fluid inlet/outlet boundaries. Four different constant inflow velocities, 0.02, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 mm/s were simulated (note all producing laminar, low Reynolds number flows). A pressure outlet was imposed on the outlet boundary. A no-slip condition was used on the predefined bone–fluid interface and zero-flux on other bounderies. The other simulations parameters are given in Table 1.
Affiliation: Department of Materials, Imperial College London, London, SW7 2AZ, UK.