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Reduction of urogenital schistosomiasis with an integrated control project in Sudan.

Lee YH, Jeong HG, Kong WH, Lee SH, Cho HI, Nam HS, Ismail HA, Alla GN, Oh CH, Hong ST - PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2015)

Bottom Line: Also, a drinking water facility was constructed at Al Hidaib village, where infection rate was reduced more compared to that in a neighboring village within the same unit.However, we found no significant change in the prevalence of S. mansoni infection between baseline and follow-up survey (95% CI = 0.933-6.891).At the end of the project, the prevalence of S. haematobium infection was reduced by more than 50% in comparison with the baseline rate.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Infection Biology, Chungnam National University School of Medicine, Daejeon, Korea.

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Schistosomiasis remains a major public health concern in Sudan, particularly Schistosoma haematobium infection. This study presents the disease-reduction outcomes of an integrated control program for schistosomiasis in Al Jabalain locality of White Nile State, Sudan from 2009 through 2011.

Methods: The total population of the project sites was 482,902, and the major target group for intervention among them was 78,615 primary school students. For the cross-sectional study of the prevalence, urine and stool specimens were examined using the urine sedimentation method and the Kato cellophane thick smear method, respectively. To assess the impacts of health education for students and a drinking water supply facility at Al Hidaib village, questionnaire survey was done.

Results: The overall prevalence for S. haematobium and S. mansoni at baseline was 28.5% and 0.4%, respectively. At follow-up survey after 6-9 months post-treatment, the prevalence of S. haematobium infection was reduced to 13.5% (95% CI = 0.331-0.462). A higher reduction in prevalence was observed among girls, those with moderately infected status (around 20%), and residents in rural areas, than among boys, those with high prevalence (>40%), and residents in urban areas. After health education, increased awareness about schistosomiasis was checked by questionnaire survey. Also, a drinking water facility was constructed at Al Hidaib village, where infection rate was reduced more compared to that in a neighboring village within the same unit. However, we found no significant change in the prevalence of S. mansoni infection between baseline and follow-up survey (95% CI = 0.933-6.891).

Conclusions: At the end of the project, the prevalence of S. haematobium infection was reduced by more than 50% in comparison with the baseline rate. Approximately 200,000 subjects had received either praziquantel therapy, health education, or supply of clean water. To consolidate the achievements of this project, the integrated intervention should be adapted continuously.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Flow chart of the participation and adherence in the present study.This project was carried out at Al Jabalain locality of White Nile State in Sudan from August 2009 to June 2011. The study areas included a total of 169 primary schools and 482,902 individuals, including 78,615 primary school students. For baseline survey, 10,671 urines and 9,107 stools were collected from 10,671 students of 61 primary schools before treatment. For follow-up evaluation, 12 schools were randomly selected among 61 schools for baseline survey, and 2,001 urines and 1,867 stools were collected from 2,001 students. According to the results of baseline survey of primary school belonging the village, village residents were received the different patterns of chemotherapy and health education.
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pntd-0003423-g003: Flow chart of the participation and adherence in the present study.This project was carried out at Al Jabalain locality of White Nile State in Sudan from August 2009 to June 2011. The study areas included a total of 169 primary schools and 482,902 individuals, including 78,615 primary school students. For baseline survey, 10,671 urines and 9,107 stools were collected from 10,671 students of 61 primary schools before treatment. For follow-up evaluation, 12 schools were randomly selected among 61 schools for baseline survey, and 2,001 urines and 1,867 stools were collected from 2,001 students. According to the results of baseline survey of primary school belonging the village, village residents were received the different patterns of chemotherapy and health education.

Mentions: The project site was Al Jabalain locality of White Nile State, Sudan (Fig. 2), which is composed of six units. We used the unit as a basic structure of implementation activities in Sudan. White Nile State is located along the White Nile River in the southeastern part of Sudan, and water canals are well developed in this region. As the land is almost flat, irrigation is based on a network of gravity-fed mud-lined canals. The Al Jabalain locality is situated on the east bank of the White Nile River in southern White Nile State. All villages included in the study were located adjacent to the White Nile River, and most houses were built with mud bricks. Most village residents used water from the river and earned their income from agriculture, livestock breeding, or fishing. The study areas included a total of 169 primary schools and 482,902 individuals, including 78,615 primary school students (Table 1). Rabak unit was an urbanized community, whereas the other Al Jabalain, Assalaya, Jazeera Aba, Joda and Kenana units were rural communities. Fig. 3 shows the adherence of participants to the present study.


Reduction of urogenital schistosomiasis with an integrated control project in Sudan.

Lee YH, Jeong HG, Kong WH, Lee SH, Cho HI, Nam HS, Ismail HA, Alla GN, Oh CH, Hong ST - PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2015)

Flow chart of the participation and adherence in the present study.This project was carried out at Al Jabalain locality of White Nile State in Sudan from August 2009 to June 2011. The study areas included a total of 169 primary schools and 482,902 individuals, including 78,615 primary school students. For baseline survey, 10,671 urines and 9,107 stools were collected from 10,671 students of 61 primary schools before treatment. For follow-up evaluation, 12 schools were randomly selected among 61 schools for baseline survey, and 2,001 urines and 1,867 stools were collected from 2,001 students. According to the results of baseline survey of primary school belonging the village, village residents were received the different patterns of chemotherapy and health education.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4288734&req=5

pntd-0003423-g003: Flow chart of the participation and adherence in the present study.This project was carried out at Al Jabalain locality of White Nile State in Sudan from August 2009 to June 2011. The study areas included a total of 169 primary schools and 482,902 individuals, including 78,615 primary school students. For baseline survey, 10,671 urines and 9,107 stools were collected from 10,671 students of 61 primary schools before treatment. For follow-up evaluation, 12 schools were randomly selected among 61 schools for baseline survey, and 2,001 urines and 1,867 stools were collected from 2,001 students. According to the results of baseline survey of primary school belonging the village, village residents were received the different patterns of chemotherapy and health education.
Mentions: The project site was Al Jabalain locality of White Nile State, Sudan (Fig. 2), which is composed of six units. We used the unit as a basic structure of implementation activities in Sudan. White Nile State is located along the White Nile River in the southeastern part of Sudan, and water canals are well developed in this region. As the land is almost flat, irrigation is based on a network of gravity-fed mud-lined canals. The Al Jabalain locality is situated on the east bank of the White Nile River in southern White Nile State. All villages included in the study were located adjacent to the White Nile River, and most houses were built with mud bricks. Most village residents used water from the river and earned their income from agriculture, livestock breeding, or fishing. The study areas included a total of 169 primary schools and 482,902 individuals, including 78,615 primary school students (Table 1). Rabak unit was an urbanized community, whereas the other Al Jabalain, Assalaya, Jazeera Aba, Joda and Kenana units were rural communities. Fig. 3 shows the adherence of participants to the present study.

Bottom Line: Also, a drinking water facility was constructed at Al Hidaib village, where infection rate was reduced more compared to that in a neighboring village within the same unit.However, we found no significant change in the prevalence of S. mansoni infection between baseline and follow-up survey (95% CI = 0.933-6.891).At the end of the project, the prevalence of S. haematobium infection was reduced by more than 50% in comparison with the baseline rate.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Infection Biology, Chungnam National University School of Medicine, Daejeon, Korea.

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Schistosomiasis remains a major public health concern in Sudan, particularly Schistosoma haematobium infection. This study presents the disease-reduction outcomes of an integrated control program for schistosomiasis in Al Jabalain locality of White Nile State, Sudan from 2009 through 2011.

Methods: The total population of the project sites was 482,902, and the major target group for intervention among them was 78,615 primary school students. For the cross-sectional study of the prevalence, urine and stool specimens were examined using the urine sedimentation method and the Kato cellophane thick smear method, respectively. To assess the impacts of health education for students and a drinking water supply facility at Al Hidaib village, questionnaire survey was done.

Results: The overall prevalence for S. haematobium and S. mansoni at baseline was 28.5% and 0.4%, respectively. At follow-up survey after 6-9 months post-treatment, the prevalence of S. haematobium infection was reduced to 13.5% (95% CI = 0.331-0.462). A higher reduction in prevalence was observed among girls, those with moderately infected status (around 20%), and residents in rural areas, than among boys, those with high prevalence (>40%), and residents in urban areas. After health education, increased awareness about schistosomiasis was checked by questionnaire survey. Also, a drinking water facility was constructed at Al Hidaib village, where infection rate was reduced more compared to that in a neighboring village within the same unit. However, we found no significant change in the prevalence of S. mansoni infection between baseline and follow-up survey (95% CI = 0.933-6.891).

Conclusions: At the end of the project, the prevalence of S. haematobium infection was reduced by more than 50% in comparison with the baseline rate. Approximately 200,000 subjects had received either praziquantel therapy, health education, or supply of clean water. To consolidate the achievements of this project, the integrated intervention should be adapted continuously.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus