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Glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate association increases tibial epiphyseal growth plate proliferation and bone formation in ovariectomized rats.

Wolff RB - Clinics (Sao Paulo) (2014)

Bottom Line: Morphological and morphometric methods were employed for analyzing the distal tibial growth plates using picrosirius red staining and the samples were processed for histochemical hyaluronan detection.Morphometric analyses were performed using the 6.0ProPlus® Image system.Notably, after 60 days of treatment, the number of proliferative chondrocytes increased two-fold, the percentage of remaining cartilage increased four-fold and the percentage of trabecular bone increased three-fold in comparison to the control animals.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Federal University of São Paulo, Department of Gynecology and Climaterium, Brazil.

ABSTRACT

Objective: The growth plate consists of organized hyaline cartilage and serves as a scaffold for endochondral ossification, a process that mediates longitudinal bone growth. Based on evidence showing that the oral administration of glucosamine sulfate (GS) and/or chondroitin sulfate (CS) is clinically valuable for the treatment of compromised articular cartilage, the current study evaluated the effects of these molecules on the tibial epiphyseal growth plate in female rats.

Method: The animals were divided into two control groups, including vehicle treatment for 45 days (GC45) and 60 days (GC60) and six ovariectomized (OVX) groups, including vehicle treatment for 45 days (GV45), GS for 45 days (GE45GS), GS+CS for 45 days (GE45GS+CS), vehicle for 60 days (GV60), GS for 60 days (GE60GS) and GS+CS for 60 days (GE60GS+CS). At the end of treatment, the tibias were dissected, decalcified and processed for paraffin embedding. Morphological and morphometric methods were employed for analyzing the distal tibial growth plates using picrosirius red staining and the samples were processed for histochemical hyaluronan detection. Morphometric analyses were performed using the 6.0ProPlus® Image system.

Results: Notably, after 60 days of treatment, the number of proliferative chondrocytes increased two-fold, the percentage of remaining cartilage increased four-fold and the percentage of trabecular bone increased three-fold in comparison to the control animals.

Conclusion: GS and CS treatment drugs led to marked cellular proliferation of the growth plate and bone formation, showing that drug targeting of the tibial epiphyseal growth plate promoted longitudinal bone growth.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Growth plate photomicrographs of the following: A: non-OVX rats treated for 45 days with vehicle (GC45); B: OVX rats treated for 45 days with vehicle (GV45); C: non-OVX rats treated for 60 days with vehicle (GC60); D: OVX rats treated for 60 days with vehicle (GV60), E: OVX rats treated for 45 days with GS (GE45GS); F: OVX rats treated for 45 days with GS+CS (GE45GS+CS); G: OVX rats treated for 60 days with GS (GE60GS); and H: OVX rats treated for 60 days with GS+CS (GE60GS+CS). Histochemical staining of hyaluronan counterstained with methyl green (arrows). Scale bar = 50 µm.
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f2-cln_69p847: Growth plate photomicrographs of the following: A: non-OVX rats treated for 45 days with vehicle (GC45); B: OVX rats treated for 45 days with vehicle (GV45); C: non-OVX rats treated for 60 days with vehicle (GC60); D: OVX rats treated for 60 days with vehicle (GV60), E: OVX rats treated for 45 days with GS (GE45GS); F: OVX rats treated for 45 days with GS+CS (GE45GS+CS); G: OVX rats treated for 60 days with GS (GE60GS); and H: OVX rats treated for 60 days with GS+CS (GE60GS+CS). Histochemical staining of hyaluronan counterstained with methyl green (arrows). Scale bar = 50 µm.

Mentions: The cellular arrangement of the epiphyseal disk in the GV45 and GV60 groups was disorganized and the remaining cartilage and trabecular bone area were decreased. Significant reductions in the number of resting and proliferative chondrocytes and PZ thickness were also noticed. Moreover, these groups showed increases in RZ and HZ thickness as well as the bone marrow area (Figure 1). Compared to GV45 and GV60, the GE45GS, GE45GS+CS, GE60GS and GE60GS+CS groups presented an organized cellular arrangement and increases in the number of resting and proliferative chondrocytes, PZ thickness, remaining cartilage and the trabecular bone area. In addition, these groups showed a decrease in the number of hypertrophic chondrocytes in the bone marrow area, as well as a decrease in RZ and HZ thickness. In all cases, the most significant alterations of these histomorphological parameters occurred 60 days after treatment. Figure 2 shows that in all groups, evident hyaluronan staining was only present in the HZ.


Glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate association increases tibial epiphyseal growth plate proliferation and bone formation in ovariectomized rats.

Wolff RB - Clinics (Sao Paulo) (2014)

Growth plate photomicrographs of the following: A: non-OVX rats treated for 45 days with vehicle (GC45); B: OVX rats treated for 45 days with vehicle (GV45); C: non-OVX rats treated for 60 days with vehicle (GC60); D: OVX rats treated for 60 days with vehicle (GV60), E: OVX rats treated for 45 days with GS (GE45GS); F: OVX rats treated for 45 days with GS+CS (GE45GS+CS); G: OVX rats treated for 60 days with GS (GE60GS); and H: OVX rats treated for 60 days with GS+CS (GE60GS+CS). Histochemical staining of hyaluronan counterstained with methyl green (arrows). Scale bar = 50 µm.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4286662&req=5

f2-cln_69p847: Growth plate photomicrographs of the following: A: non-OVX rats treated for 45 days with vehicle (GC45); B: OVX rats treated for 45 days with vehicle (GV45); C: non-OVX rats treated for 60 days with vehicle (GC60); D: OVX rats treated for 60 days with vehicle (GV60), E: OVX rats treated for 45 days with GS (GE45GS); F: OVX rats treated for 45 days with GS+CS (GE45GS+CS); G: OVX rats treated for 60 days with GS (GE60GS); and H: OVX rats treated for 60 days with GS+CS (GE60GS+CS). Histochemical staining of hyaluronan counterstained with methyl green (arrows). Scale bar = 50 µm.
Mentions: The cellular arrangement of the epiphyseal disk in the GV45 and GV60 groups was disorganized and the remaining cartilage and trabecular bone area were decreased. Significant reductions in the number of resting and proliferative chondrocytes and PZ thickness were also noticed. Moreover, these groups showed increases in RZ and HZ thickness as well as the bone marrow area (Figure 1). Compared to GV45 and GV60, the GE45GS, GE45GS+CS, GE60GS and GE60GS+CS groups presented an organized cellular arrangement and increases in the number of resting and proliferative chondrocytes, PZ thickness, remaining cartilage and the trabecular bone area. In addition, these groups showed a decrease in the number of hypertrophic chondrocytes in the bone marrow area, as well as a decrease in RZ and HZ thickness. In all cases, the most significant alterations of these histomorphological parameters occurred 60 days after treatment. Figure 2 shows that in all groups, evident hyaluronan staining was only present in the HZ.

Bottom Line: Morphological and morphometric methods were employed for analyzing the distal tibial growth plates using picrosirius red staining and the samples were processed for histochemical hyaluronan detection.Morphometric analyses were performed using the 6.0ProPlus® Image system.Notably, after 60 days of treatment, the number of proliferative chondrocytes increased two-fold, the percentage of remaining cartilage increased four-fold and the percentage of trabecular bone increased three-fold in comparison to the control animals.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Federal University of São Paulo, Department of Gynecology and Climaterium, Brazil.

ABSTRACT

Objective: The growth plate consists of organized hyaline cartilage and serves as a scaffold for endochondral ossification, a process that mediates longitudinal bone growth. Based on evidence showing that the oral administration of glucosamine sulfate (GS) and/or chondroitin sulfate (CS) is clinically valuable for the treatment of compromised articular cartilage, the current study evaluated the effects of these molecules on the tibial epiphyseal growth plate in female rats.

Method: The animals were divided into two control groups, including vehicle treatment for 45 days (GC45) and 60 days (GC60) and six ovariectomized (OVX) groups, including vehicle treatment for 45 days (GV45), GS for 45 days (GE45GS), GS+CS for 45 days (GE45GS+CS), vehicle for 60 days (GV60), GS for 60 days (GE60GS) and GS+CS for 60 days (GE60GS+CS). At the end of treatment, the tibias were dissected, decalcified and processed for paraffin embedding. Morphological and morphometric methods were employed for analyzing the distal tibial growth plates using picrosirius red staining and the samples were processed for histochemical hyaluronan detection. Morphometric analyses were performed using the 6.0ProPlus® Image system.

Results: Notably, after 60 days of treatment, the number of proliferative chondrocytes increased two-fold, the percentage of remaining cartilage increased four-fold and the percentage of trabecular bone increased three-fold in comparison to the control animals.

Conclusion: GS and CS treatment drugs led to marked cellular proliferation of the growth plate and bone formation, showing that drug targeting of the tibial epiphyseal growth plate promoted longitudinal bone growth.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus