The dual effects of root-cap exudates on nematodes: from quiescence in plant-parasitic nematodes to frenzy in entomopathogenic nematodes.
Bottom Line: Notably, after storage in root exudate, EPN performance traits were maintained over time, whereas performances of EPNs stored in water rapidly declined.In sharp contrast to high concentrations, lower concentrations of the exudate resulted in a significant increase in EPN activity and infectiousness, but still reduced the activity of two plant-parasitic nematode species.Appropriately formulated, it can favour long-term storage of EPNs and boost their infectiousness, while it may also be used to protect plants from plant-parasitic nematodes.
Affiliation: Division of Plant Sciences, University of Missouri, 205 Curtis Hall, Columbia, MO 65211-7020, USA email@example.com.Show MeSH
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Mentions: Reducing the exudate concentration quickly reached a threshold beyond which induction of quiescence in H. bacteriophora failed (Fig. 3; ANOVA on ranks, H7,15 = 52.42, P ≤ 0.001), but instead resulted in increased movement (Fig. 4A; ANOVA, F2–89 = 491.427, P ≤ 0.001). At a low concentration, the exudate had a positive impact on the infectiousness of H. bacteriophora (Fig. 5; RM two-way ANOVA, F1,107 = 20.991, P = 0.006), and EPN exposed to low concentration exudates were more effective at killing G. mellonella over time as compared to EPN exposed to water only (Fig. 5; RM two-way ANOVA, F8,107 = 5.88, P ≤ 0.001). Contrary to the effect on EPNs, the same low concentration of exudate significantly reduced the mobility of the tested plant-parasitic nematode species H. glycine (Fig. 4B; ANOVA, F2–89 = 225.023, P ≤ 0.001) and M. incognita (Fig. 4C; ANOVA on ranks, H = 67.876, P ≤ 0.001).
Affiliation: Division of Plant Sciences, University of Missouri, 205 Curtis Hall, Columbia, MO 65211-7020, USA firstname.lastname@example.org.