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Cytokinin levels and signaling respond to wounding and the perception of herbivore elicitors in Nicotiana attenuata.

Schäfer M, Meza-Canales ID, Navarro-Quezada A, Brütting C, Vanková R, Baldwin IT, Meldau S - J Integr Plant Biol (2014)

Bottom Line: Nearly half a century ago insect herbivores were found to induce the formation of green islands by manipulating cytokinin (CK) levels.Wats.) and its response to wounding and perception of herbivore-associated molecular patterns (HAMPs).Since wounding and grasshopper OS elicited similar accumulations of CKs in Arabidopsis thaliana L., we propose that CKs are integral components of wounding and HAMP-triggered responses in many plant species.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Molecular Ecology, Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology, 07745, Jena, Germany.

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Wounding and herbivory induce changes in cytokinin levels in leaves of Arabidopsis thalianaIsopentenyladenosine (IPR), cis-zeatin (cZ), cis-zeatin riboside (cZR), and cis-zeatin riboside O-glucoside (cZROG) levels in leaves 30 min after wounding and application of water (W) or grasshopper oral secretions (OSGH) to the puncture wounds, as well as in untreated control leaves (C). Asterisks indicate significant differences between W and OSGH application to wounding sites or between wounding and W application compared to C, as indicated (independent samples t-test: *P≤0.05, **P≤0.01, ***P≤0.001). Error bars are standard errors (n≥4). FM, fresh mass.
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Figure 8: Wounding and herbivory induce changes in cytokinin levels in leaves of Arabidopsis thalianaIsopentenyladenosine (IPR), cis-zeatin (cZ), cis-zeatin riboside (cZR), and cis-zeatin riboside O-glucoside (cZROG) levels in leaves 30 min after wounding and application of water (W) or grasshopper oral secretions (OSGH) to the puncture wounds, as well as in untreated control leaves (C). Asterisks indicate significant differences between W and OSGH application to wounding sites or between wounding and W application compared to C, as indicated (independent samples t-test: *P≤0.05, **P≤0.01, ***P≤0.001). Error bars are standard errors (n≥4). FM, fresh mass.

Mentions: To investigate if HAMP-induced CK levels are also induced in other plants, we wounded leaves of A. thaliana and treated them with water or grasshopper OS (OSGH). While A. thaliana leaves do not respond to FACs, they do perceive OSGH, which results in an amplification of wound-induced defense responses (Schäfer et al. 2011). Wounding alone increased the IPR levels in leaves by 35%, cZ level by 115%, cZR level by 86%, and cZROG level by 73%, when compared to untreated leaves. OSGH application to puncture wounds significantly elevated the W + W-induced changes in IPR, cZ, and cZR levels and marginally increased cZROG levels. W + OSGH treatment resulted in 2.3, 18.1, 7.3, and 2.1 times as much IPR, cZ, cZR, and cZROG accumulation, respectively, when compared to control levels (Figure 8).


Cytokinin levels and signaling respond to wounding and the perception of herbivore elicitors in Nicotiana attenuata.

Schäfer M, Meza-Canales ID, Navarro-Quezada A, Brütting C, Vanková R, Baldwin IT, Meldau S - J Integr Plant Biol (2014)

Wounding and herbivory induce changes in cytokinin levels in leaves of Arabidopsis thalianaIsopentenyladenosine (IPR), cis-zeatin (cZ), cis-zeatin riboside (cZR), and cis-zeatin riboside O-glucoside (cZROG) levels in leaves 30 min after wounding and application of water (W) or grasshopper oral secretions (OSGH) to the puncture wounds, as well as in untreated control leaves (C). Asterisks indicate significant differences between W and OSGH application to wounding sites or between wounding and W application compared to C, as indicated (independent samples t-test: *P≤0.05, **P≤0.01, ***P≤0.001). Error bars are standard errors (n≥4). FM, fresh mass.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4286249&req=5

Figure 8: Wounding and herbivory induce changes in cytokinin levels in leaves of Arabidopsis thalianaIsopentenyladenosine (IPR), cis-zeatin (cZ), cis-zeatin riboside (cZR), and cis-zeatin riboside O-glucoside (cZROG) levels in leaves 30 min after wounding and application of water (W) or grasshopper oral secretions (OSGH) to the puncture wounds, as well as in untreated control leaves (C). Asterisks indicate significant differences between W and OSGH application to wounding sites or between wounding and W application compared to C, as indicated (independent samples t-test: *P≤0.05, **P≤0.01, ***P≤0.001). Error bars are standard errors (n≥4). FM, fresh mass.
Mentions: To investigate if HAMP-induced CK levels are also induced in other plants, we wounded leaves of A. thaliana and treated them with water or grasshopper OS (OSGH). While A. thaliana leaves do not respond to FACs, they do perceive OSGH, which results in an amplification of wound-induced defense responses (Schäfer et al. 2011). Wounding alone increased the IPR levels in leaves by 35%, cZ level by 115%, cZR level by 86%, and cZROG level by 73%, when compared to untreated leaves. OSGH application to puncture wounds significantly elevated the W + W-induced changes in IPR, cZ, and cZR levels and marginally increased cZROG levels. W + OSGH treatment resulted in 2.3, 18.1, 7.3, and 2.1 times as much IPR, cZ, cZR, and cZROG accumulation, respectively, when compared to control levels (Figure 8).

Bottom Line: Nearly half a century ago insect herbivores were found to induce the formation of green islands by manipulating cytokinin (CK) levels.Wats.) and its response to wounding and perception of herbivore-associated molecular patterns (HAMPs).Since wounding and grasshopper OS elicited similar accumulations of CKs in Arabidopsis thaliana L., we propose that CKs are integral components of wounding and HAMP-triggered responses in many plant species.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Molecular Ecology, Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology, 07745, Jena, Germany.

Show MeSH