Cytokinin levels and signaling respond to wounding and the perception of herbivore elicitors in Nicotiana attenuata.
Bottom Line: Nearly half a century ago insect herbivores were found to induce the formation of green islands by manipulating cytokinin (CK) levels.Wats.) and its response to wounding and perception of herbivore-associated molecular patterns (HAMPs).Since wounding and grasshopper OS elicited similar accumulations of CKs in Arabidopsis thaliana L., we propose that CKs are integral components of wounding and HAMP-triggered responses in many plant species.
Affiliation: Department of Molecular Ecology, Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology, 07745, Jena, Germany.Show MeSH
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Mentions: To investigate if HAMP-induced CK levels are also induced in other plants, we wounded leaves of A. thaliana and treated them with water or grasshopper OS (OSGH). While A. thaliana leaves do not respond to FACs, they do perceive OSGH, which results in an amplification of wound-induced defense responses (Schäfer et al. 2011). Wounding alone increased the IPR levels in leaves by 35%, cZ level by 115%, cZR level by 86%, and cZROG level by 73%, when compared to untreated leaves. OSGH application to puncture wounds significantly elevated the W + W-induced changes in IPR, cZ, and cZR levels and marginally increased cZROG levels. W + OSGH treatment resulted in 2.3, 18.1, 7.3, and 2.1 times as much IPR, cZ, cZR, and cZROG accumulation, respectively, when compared to control levels (Figure 8).
Affiliation: Department of Molecular Ecology, Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology, 07745, Jena, Germany.