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Yeast cell wall extract induces disease resistance against bacterial and fungal pathogens in Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica crop.

Narusaka M, Minami T, Iwabuchi C, Hamasaki T, Takasaki S, Kawamura K, Narusaka Y - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: HM reduced the severity of bacterial leaf spot and anthracnose on A. thaliana and Brassica crop leaves with protective effects.In addition, HM-induced resistance conferred chitin-independent disease resistance to bacterial pathogens in A. thaliana.These results suggest that HM contains multiple microbe-associated molecular patterns that activate defense responses in plants.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Research Institute for Biological Sciences Okayama, Okayama, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Housaku Monogatari (HM) is a plant activator prepared from a yeast cell wall extract. We examined the efficacy of HM application and observed that HM treatment increased the resistance of Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica rapa leaves to bacterial and fungal infections. HM reduced the severity of bacterial leaf spot and anthracnose on A. thaliana and Brassica crop leaves with protective effects. In addition, gene expression analysis of A. thaliana plants after treatment with HM indicated increased expression of several plant defense-related genes. HM treatment appears to induce early activation of jasmonate/ethylene and late activation of salicylic acid (SA) pathways. Analysis using signaling mutants revealed that HM required SA accumulation and SA signaling to facilitate resistance to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola and the fungal pathogen Colletotrichum higginsianum. In addition, HM-induced resistance conferred chitin-independent disease resistance to bacterial pathogens in A. thaliana. These results suggest that HM contains multiple microbe-associated molecular patterns that activate defense responses in plants. These findings suggest that the application of HM is a useful tool that may facilitate new disease control methods.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Induction of resistance to C. higginsianum by HM application in Arabidopsis defense signaling-defective mutants.The 28- to 30-day-old A. thaliana mutants were sprayed with water (control) or 1250 ppm HM at 2 days prior to spray inoculation with a spore suspension (5 × 105 spores mL−1) of C. higginsianum. Pathogen growth was determined 5 days after inoculation by assessing C. higginsianum actin mRNA by qRT-PCR. Bars indicate the standard error (SE). The asterisk indicates a significant difference compared with the control (Dunnett’s method [35], P < 0.05). The experiment was repeated at least twice with similar results.
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pone.0115864.g007: Induction of resistance to C. higginsianum by HM application in Arabidopsis defense signaling-defective mutants.The 28- to 30-day-old A. thaliana mutants were sprayed with water (control) or 1250 ppm HM at 2 days prior to spray inoculation with a spore suspension (5 × 105 spores mL−1) of C. higginsianum. Pathogen growth was determined 5 days after inoculation by assessing C. higginsianum actin mRNA by qRT-PCR. Bars indicate the standard error (SE). The asterisk indicates a significant difference compared with the control (Dunnett’s method [35], P < 0.05). The experiment was repeated at least twice with similar results.

Mentions: HM was applied to transgenic plants and mutants, and their resistance to C. higginsianum was evaluated (Fig. 7). Enhanced resistance to C. higginsianum was not detected in NahG transgenic plants and eds16–1 and npr1–1 mutants that had been pretreated with 1250 ppm HM at 2 days prior to fungal inoculation. In contrast, HM-treated ein2–12 and jar1–1 mutants did not support the fungal growth, whereas water-pretreated controls exhibited increased fungal growth. Thus, HM appears to activate disease resistance to C. higginsianum via an SA-dependent pathway. Compared with control plants, the HM-treated cerk1 mutant also exhibited increased resistance to C. higginsianum (Fig. 7). In addition, HM exhibited no direct toxic effect on fungi.


Yeast cell wall extract induces disease resistance against bacterial and fungal pathogens in Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica crop.

Narusaka M, Minami T, Iwabuchi C, Hamasaki T, Takasaki S, Kawamura K, Narusaka Y - PLoS ONE (2015)

Induction of resistance to C. higginsianum by HM application in Arabidopsis defense signaling-defective mutants.The 28- to 30-day-old A. thaliana mutants were sprayed with water (control) or 1250 ppm HM at 2 days prior to spray inoculation with a spore suspension (5 × 105 spores mL−1) of C. higginsianum. Pathogen growth was determined 5 days after inoculation by assessing C. higginsianum actin mRNA by qRT-PCR. Bars indicate the standard error (SE). The asterisk indicates a significant difference compared with the control (Dunnett’s method [35], P < 0.05). The experiment was repeated at least twice with similar results.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4286235&req=5

pone.0115864.g007: Induction of resistance to C. higginsianum by HM application in Arabidopsis defense signaling-defective mutants.The 28- to 30-day-old A. thaliana mutants were sprayed with water (control) or 1250 ppm HM at 2 days prior to spray inoculation with a spore suspension (5 × 105 spores mL−1) of C. higginsianum. Pathogen growth was determined 5 days after inoculation by assessing C. higginsianum actin mRNA by qRT-PCR. Bars indicate the standard error (SE). The asterisk indicates a significant difference compared with the control (Dunnett’s method [35], P < 0.05). The experiment was repeated at least twice with similar results.
Mentions: HM was applied to transgenic plants and mutants, and their resistance to C. higginsianum was evaluated (Fig. 7). Enhanced resistance to C. higginsianum was not detected in NahG transgenic plants and eds16–1 and npr1–1 mutants that had been pretreated with 1250 ppm HM at 2 days prior to fungal inoculation. In contrast, HM-treated ein2–12 and jar1–1 mutants did not support the fungal growth, whereas water-pretreated controls exhibited increased fungal growth. Thus, HM appears to activate disease resistance to C. higginsianum via an SA-dependent pathway. Compared with control plants, the HM-treated cerk1 mutant also exhibited increased resistance to C. higginsianum (Fig. 7). In addition, HM exhibited no direct toxic effect on fungi.

Bottom Line: HM reduced the severity of bacterial leaf spot and anthracnose on A. thaliana and Brassica crop leaves with protective effects.In addition, HM-induced resistance conferred chitin-independent disease resistance to bacterial pathogens in A. thaliana.These results suggest that HM contains multiple microbe-associated molecular patterns that activate defense responses in plants.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Research Institute for Biological Sciences Okayama, Okayama, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Housaku Monogatari (HM) is a plant activator prepared from a yeast cell wall extract. We examined the efficacy of HM application and observed that HM treatment increased the resistance of Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica rapa leaves to bacterial and fungal infections. HM reduced the severity of bacterial leaf spot and anthracnose on A. thaliana and Brassica crop leaves with protective effects. In addition, gene expression analysis of A. thaliana plants after treatment with HM indicated increased expression of several plant defense-related genes. HM treatment appears to induce early activation of jasmonate/ethylene and late activation of salicylic acid (SA) pathways. Analysis using signaling mutants revealed that HM required SA accumulation and SA signaling to facilitate resistance to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola and the fungal pathogen Colletotrichum higginsianum. In addition, HM-induced resistance conferred chitin-independent disease resistance to bacterial pathogens in A. thaliana. These results suggest that HM contains multiple microbe-associated molecular patterns that activate defense responses in plants. These findings suggest that the application of HM is a useful tool that may facilitate new disease control methods.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus