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The optimization of essential oils supercritical CO2 extraction from Lavandula hybrida through static-dynamic steps procedure and semi-continuous technique using response surface method.

Kamali H, Aminimoghadamfarouj N, Golmakani E, Nematollahi A - Pharmacognosy Res (2015 Jan-Mar)

Bottom Line: Essential oil components were extracted from Lavandula hybrida (Lavandin) flowers using supercritical carbon dioxide via static-dynamic steps (SDS) procedure, and semi-continuous (SC) technique.Using response surface method the optimum extraction yield (4.768%) was obtained via SDS at 108.7 bar, 48.5°C, 120 min (static: 8×15), 24 min (dynamic: 8×3 min) in contrast to the 4.620% extraction yield for the SC at 111.6 bar, 49.2°C, 14 min (static), 121.1 min (dynamic).The results indicated that a substantial reduction (81.56%) solvent usage (kg CO2/g oil) is observed in the SDS method versus the conventional SC method.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Research Center of Natural Products Health, North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences, Bojnurd, Iran.

ABSTRACT

Aim: The aim of this study was to examine and evaluate crucial variables in essential oils extraction process from Lavandula hybrida through static-dynamic and semi-continuous techniques using response surface method.

Materials and methods: Essential oil components were extracted from Lavandula hybrida (Lavandin) flowers using supercritical carbon dioxide via static-dynamic steps (SDS) procedure, and semi-continuous (SC) technique.

Results: Using response surface method the optimum extraction yield (4.768%) was obtained via SDS at 108.7 bar, 48.5°C, 120 min (static: 8×15), 24 min (dynamic: 8×3 min) in contrast to the 4.620% extraction yield for the SC at 111.6 bar, 49.2°C, 14 min (static), 121.1 min (dynamic).

Conclusion: The results indicated that a substantial reduction (81.56%) solvent usage (kg CO2/g oil) is observed in the SDS method versus the conventional SC method.

No MeSH data available.


Response surface of SC extraction yield as a function of static and dynamic extraction time at 49.2 °C and 111.6 bar
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Figure 7: Response surface of SC extraction yield as a function of static and dynamic extraction time at 49.2 °C and 111.6 bar

Mentions: The effect of temperature on the extraction yield is shown in Figure 6. Enhancement of extraction yield is observed via increasing temperature in the range of 40-49.2°C, in which higher solute solubility effect due to increased vapor pressure overcomes the effect of the solvent density decrease. Beyond 49.2°C, the retrograde solubility prevails and therefore, the effect of density decrease overcomes the influence of increased vapor pressure of solute. Thus, lower extraction yield is obtained in the range of 49.2-60°C. Figure 6 also shows the effect of pressure on the extraction yield in the range of 80-120 bar. It is observed that the extraction yield is enhanced by increasing pressure up to 111.6 bar due to higher density; in other words, better interaction between solvent and matrix, and solvation capabilities and also higher mass transfer driving force provide an appropriate medium for leaching process to take place. Beyond 111.6 bar, saturation limitation occurs and thus, a constant trend of extraction is obtained up to 120 bar.[26] It is important to optimize the contact of the supercritical fluid with the sample material in order to enhance the SFE efficiency. Several variables that influence the solvent contact time with sample material include flow rate, SFE time, and SFE mode (static with no flow-through or dynamic with flow-through). The static extraction prior to dynamic extraction usually improves the solute recoveries in SFE. The effect of static and dynamic extraction times on yield of SC method is illustrated in Figure 7. Samples were held in the static extraction mode in the range of 0-20 min, followed by a dynamic extraction in the range of 60-140 min at the constant flow rate of 5 mL/min. The enhancement of extraction yield is observed as static time is increased from 0 to 14 min in which the maximum yield of 4.620% is reached and subsequent increase in static time does not have any significant effect on yield. The observed extraction efficiency can be explained in terms of higher mass transfer driving force up to 14 min. Using dynamic extraction, higher mass transfer driving force at the beginning provides a suitable condition for extraction and this continues up to 121.1 min and after that a constant mode of extraction is observed due to the very low essential oil concentration of the matrix.[14] The SC optimum operating conditions to achieve maximum extraction yield (4.620%) for temperature, pressure, static time, and dynamic time were 49.2°C, 111.6 bar, 14 min, and 121.1 min, respectively.


The optimization of essential oils supercritical CO2 extraction from Lavandula hybrida through static-dynamic steps procedure and semi-continuous technique using response surface method.

Kamali H, Aminimoghadamfarouj N, Golmakani E, Nematollahi A - Pharmacognosy Res (2015 Jan-Mar)

Response surface of SC extraction yield as a function of static and dynamic extraction time at 49.2 °C and 111.6 bar
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4285650&req=5

Figure 7: Response surface of SC extraction yield as a function of static and dynamic extraction time at 49.2 °C and 111.6 bar
Mentions: The effect of temperature on the extraction yield is shown in Figure 6. Enhancement of extraction yield is observed via increasing temperature in the range of 40-49.2°C, in which higher solute solubility effect due to increased vapor pressure overcomes the effect of the solvent density decrease. Beyond 49.2°C, the retrograde solubility prevails and therefore, the effect of density decrease overcomes the influence of increased vapor pressure of solute. Thus, lower extraction yield is obtained in the range of 49.2-60°C. Figure 6 also shows the effect of pressure on the extraction yield in the range of 80-120 bar. It is observed that the extraction yield is enhanced by increasing pressure up to 111.6 bar due to higher density; in other words, better interaction between solvent and matrix, and solvation capabilities and also higher mass transfer driving force provide an appropriate medium for leaching process to take place. Beyond 111.6 bar, saturation limitation occurs and thus, a constant trend of extraction is obtained up to 120 bar.[26] It is important to optimize the contact of the supercritical fluid with the sample material in order to enhance the SFE efficiency. Several variables that influence the solvent contact time with sample material include flow rate, SFE time, and SFE mode (static with no flow-through or dynamic with flow-through). The static extraction prior to dynamic extraction usually improves the solute recoveries in SFE. The effect of static and dynamic extraction times on yield of SC method is illustrated in Figure 7. Samples were held in the static extraction mode in the range of 0-20 min, followed by a dynamic extraction in the range of 60-140 min at the constant flow rate of 5 mL/min. The enhancement of extraction yield is observed as static time is increased from 0 to 14 min in which the maximum yield of 4.620% is reached and subsequent increase in static time does not have any significant effect on yield. The observed extraction efficiency can be explained in terms of higher mass transfer driving force up to 14 min. Using dynamic extraction, higher mass transfer driving force at the beginning provides a suitable condition for extraction and this continues up to 121.1 min and after that a constant mode of extraction is observed due to the very low essential oil concentration of the matrix.[14] The SC optimum operating conditions to achieve maximum extraction yield (4.620%) for temperature, pressure, static time, and dynamic time were 49.2°C, 111.6 bar, 14 min, and 121.1 min, respectively.

Bottom Line: Essential oil components were extracted from Lavandula hybrida (Lavandin) flowers using supercritical carbon dioxide via static-dynamic steps (SDS) procedure, and semi-continuous (SC) technique.Using response surface method the optimum extraction yield (4.768%) was obtained via SDS at 108.7 bar, 48.5°C, 120 min (static: 8×15), 24 min (dynamic: 8×3 min) in contrast to the 4.620% extraction yield for the SC at 111.6 bar, 49.2°C, 14 min (static), 121.1 min (dynamic).The results indicated that a substantial reduction (81.56%) solvent usage (kg CO2/g oil) is observed in the SDS method versus the conventional SC method.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Research Center of Natural Products Health, North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences, Bojnurd, Iran.

ABSTRACT

Aim: The aim of this study was to examine and evaluate crucial variables in essential oils extraction process from Lavandula hybrida through static-dynamic and semi-continuous techniques using response surface method.

Materials and methods: Essential oil components were extracted from Lavandula hybrida (Lavandin) flowers using supercritical carbon dioxide via static-dynamic steps (SDS) procedure, and semi-continuous (SC) technique.

Results: Using response surface method the optimum extraction yield (4.768%) was obtained via SDS at 108.7 bar, 48.5°C, 120 min (static: 8×15), 24 min (dynamic: 8×3 min) in contrast to the 4.620% extraction yield for the SC at 111.6 bar, 49.2°C, 14 min (static), 121.1 min (dynamic).

Conclusion: The results indicated that a substantial reduction (81.56%) solvent usage (kg CO2/g oil) is observed in the SDS method versus the conventional SC method.

No MeSH data available.