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Antioxidant activities of ficus glomerata (moraceae) leaf gall extracts.

Eshwarappa RS, Iyer S, Subaramaihha SR, Richard SA, Dhananjaya BL - Pharmacognosy Res (2015 Jan-Mar)

Bottom Line: A higher content of both total phenolics and flavonoids were found in the methanolic extract and the significantly high antioxidant activity can be positively correlated to the high content of total polyphenols/flavonoids of the methanol extract.The results of this study confirm the folklore use of F. glomerata leaf gall extracts as a natural antioxidant and justify its ethnobotanical use.Further, the results of antioxidant properties encourage the use of F. glomerata leaf gall extracts for medicinal health, functional food and nutraceuticals applications.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, School of Graduate Studies, Sri Bhagawan Mahaveer Jain College, Jain University, Bangalore, India ; Research Unit in Vrukshayurveda, A Division of Centre for Advanced Studies in Biosciences, Sri Bhagawan Mahaveer Jain College, Jain University, Bangalore, India ; Post Graduate Department of Studies and Research in Biotechnology, Kuvempu University, Shankarghatta, India.

ABSTRACT
An excess production or decreased scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diverse metabolic disorders such as diabetes, cancer, atherosclerosis and neurodegeneration. Hence the antioxidant therapy has gained an utmost importance in the treatment of such diseases linked to free radicals. The medicinal properties of plants have been investigated and explored for their potent antioxidant activities to counteract metabolic disorders. This research highlights the chemical composition and antioxidant potential of leaf gall extracts (aqueous and methanol) of Ficus glomerata (F. glomerata), which is extensively used in the preparation of traditional medications to treat various metabolic diseases. The presences of phenolics, flavonoids, phytosterols, terpenoids and reducing sugars were identified in both the extracts. In comparison to the aqueous extract, the methanol extract had the highest total phenolic and flavonoid content at 370 ± 3.2 mg of gallic acid equivalent per gram of dry weight (mg GAE/g dw) and 155 ± 3.2 mg of quercetin equivalent per gram of dry weight (mg QUE/g dw), respectively. The antioxidant activities of leaf gall extracts were examined using diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Nitric oxide scavenging, hydroxyl scavenging and ferric reducing power (FRAP) methods. In all the methods, the methanolic extract showed higher antioxidant potential than the aqueous extract. A higher content of both total phenolics and flavonoids were found in the methanolic extract and the significantly high antioxidant activity can be positively correlated to the high content of total polyphenols/flavonoids of the methanol extract. The results of this study confirm the folklore use of F. glomerata leaf gall extracts as a natural antioxidant and justify its ethnobotanical use. Further, the results of antioxidant properties encourage the use of F. glomerata leaf gall extracts for medicinal health, functional food and nutraceuticals applications. Future work will be interesting in knowing the chemical composition and better understand the mechanism of action of the antioxidants present for development as drug for its therapeutic application.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Ferric reducing power of aqueous and methanol extract of leaf gall of F. glomerata. Ascorbic acid is included as positive control. Activity is expressed at absorbance at 700 nm. Each value is expressed as the mean ± standard deviation
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Figure 4: Ferric reducing power of aqueous and methanol extract of leaf gall of F. glomerata. Ascorbic acid is included as positive control. Activity is expressed at absorbance at 700 nm. Each value is expressed as the mean ± standard deviation

Mentions: The reducing capacity of a compounds or extracts may serve as a significant indicator of its potential antioxidant activity. The presence of a reductant, such as the antioxidant substances in plant extracts, causes the reduction of Fe3+ ferricyanide complex to the ferrous form, Fe2+. The reduction capabilities of aqueous and methanol extracts of leaf galls of F. glomerata in comparison with standard ascorbic acid is indicated as in Figure 4. In comparison with the aqueous extract, the methanol extract had better reducing power at a concentration of 500 μg/ml [Figure 4]. The ferric reducing power of leaf galls of F. glomerata may be attributed to the high phenolic and flavonoid contents of the extracts [Table 2]. The ability to reduce Fe (III) may be attributed to the hydrogen donation from phenolic compound, which is related to the presence of a reducing agent.[3940] In addition, the number and position of hydroxyl group of phenolic compounds also govern their antioxidant activity.[38]


Antioxidant activities of ficus glomerata (moraceae) leaf gall extracts.

Eshwarappa RS, Iyer S, Subaramaihha SR, Richard SA, Dhananjaya BL - Pharmacognosy Res (2015 Jan-Mar)

Ferric reducing power of aqueous and methanol extract of leaf gall of F. glomerata. Ascorbic acid is included as positive control. Activity is expressed at absorbance at 700 nm. Each value is expressed as the mean ± standard deviation
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4285640&req=5

Figure 4: Ferric reducing power of aqueous and methanol extract of leaf gall of F. glomerata. Ascorbic acid is included as positive control. Activity is expressed at absorbance at 700 nm. Each value is expressed as the mean ± standard deviation
Mentions: The reducing capacity of a compounds or extracts may serve as a significant indicator of its potential antioxidant activity. The presence of a reductant, such as the antioxidant substances in plant extracts, causes the reduction of Fe3+ ferricyanide complex to the ferrous form, Fe2+. The reduction capabilities of aqueous and methanol extracts of leaf galls of F. glomerata in comparison with standard ascorbic acid is indicated as in Figure 4. In comparison with the aqueous extract, the methanol extract had better reducing power at a concentration of 500 μg/ml [Figure 4]. The ferric reducing power of leaf galls of F. glomerata may be attributed to the high phenolic and flavonoid contents of the extracts [Table 2]. The ability to reduce Fe (III) may be attributed to the hydrogen donation from phenolic compound, which is related to the presence of a reducing agent.[3940] In addition, the number and position of hydroxyl group of phenolic compounds also govern their antioxidant activity.[38]

Bottom Line: A higher content of both total phenolics and flavonoids were found in the methanolic extract and the significantly high antioxidant activity can be positively correlated to the high content of total polyphenols/flavonoids of the methanol extract.The results of this study confirm the folklore use of F. glomerata leaf gall extracts as a natural antioxidant and justify its ethnobotanical use.Further, the results of antioxidant properties encourage the use of F. glomerata leaf gall extracts for medicinal health, functional food and nutraceuticals applications.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, School of Graduate Studies, Sri Bhagawan Mahaveer Jain College, Jain University, Bangalore, India ; Research Unit in Vrukshayurveda, A Division of Centre for Advanced Studies in Biosciences, Sri Bhagawan Mahaveer Jain College, Jain University, Bangalore, India ; Post Graduate Department of Studies and Research in Biotechnology, Kuvempu University, Shankarghatta, India.

ABSTRACT
An excess production or decreased scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diverse metabolic disorders such as diabetes, cancer, atherosclerosis and neurodegeneration. Hence the antioxidant therapy has gained an utmost importance in the treatment of such diseases linked to free radicals. The medicinal properties of plants have been investigated and explored for their potent antioxidant activities to counteract metabolic disorders. This research highlights the chemical composition and antioxidant potential of leaf gall extracts (aqueous and methanol) of Ficus glomerata (F. glomerata), which is extensively used in the preparation of traditional medications to treat various metabolic diseases. The presences of phenolics, flavonoids, phytosterols, terpenoids and reducing sugars were identified in both the extracts. In comparison to the aqueous extract, the methanol extract had the highest total phenolic and flavonoid content at 370 ± 3.2 mg of gallic acid equivalent per gram of dry weight (mg GAE/g dw) and 155 ± 3.2 mg of quercetin equivalent per gram of dry weight (mg QUE/g dw), respectively. The antioxidant activities of leaf gall extracts were examined using diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Nitric oxide scavenging, hydroxyl scavenging and ferric reducing power (FRAP) methods. In all the methods, the methanolic extract showed higher antioxidant potential than the aqueous extract. A higher content of both total phenolics and flavonoids were found in the methanolic extract and the significantly high antioxidant activity can be positively correlated to the high content of total polyphenols/flavonoids of the methanol extract. The results of this study confirm the folklore use of F. glomerata leaf gall extracts as a natural antioxidant and justify its ethnobotanical use. Further, the results of antioxidant properties encourage the use of F. glomerata leaf gall extracts for medicinal health, functional food and nutraceuticals applications. Future work will be interesting in knowing the chemical composition and better understand the mechanism of action of the antioxidants present for development as drug for its therapeutic application.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus