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Intervertebral disc disease in Dachshunds radiographically screened for intervertebral disc calcifications.

Lappalainen AK, Vaittinen E, Junnila J, Laitinen-Vapaavuori O - Acta Vet. Scand. (2014)

Bottom Line: Radiographically detected IDC and IDD are common in Finnish Dachshunds and are strongly associated with one another.A breeding program that screens dogs and selects against IDC can be expected to reduce the occurrence of IDD in future.Twenty-four to 48 months of age is a suitable age for screening.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Section of Small Animal Surgery, Department of Equine and Small Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 57, FI - 00014 HU, Helsinki, Finland. anu.k.lappalainen@helsinki.fi.

ABSTRACT

Background: Intervertebral disc disease (IDD) is a very common neurological disease, Dachshunds being the breed most often affected. In this breed, IDD has a hereditary background and is associated with intervertebral disc calcification (IDC), an indicator of severe intervertebral disc degeneration. In Finland, spinal radiography is used, when screening for IDC before breeding Dachshunds. We evaluated the association between IDC and IDD in Finnish Dachshunds radiographically screened for IDC. A questionnaire was sent to owners of 193 radiographically screened Dachshunds aged at least ten years. Clinical signs indicative of IDD were compared with IDC grade (grade 0 = no calcifications, grade 1 = 1 - 2 calcifications, grade 2 = 3 - 4 calcifications and grade 3 = 5 or more calcifications) and with age at the time of the radiographic examination. The diagnosis of IDD was confirmed by a veterinarian.

Results: IDD was common in the study population with 31% of dogs being affected. IDD and IDC were clearly connected (P < 0.001); IDD was rare in dogs with no calcifications (grade 0) and common in dogs with severe IDC (grade 3). The IDC grade was strongly positively associated with frequency of back pain periods (P < 0.001), and dogs with IDC grade 3 had frequent periods of pain. Reluctance to jump onto a sofa had a strong positive association with back pain. No association existed between age of the dog at the time of the radiographic examination and clinical signs indicative of IDD.

Conclusions: Radiographically detected IDC and IDD are common in Finnish Dachshunds and are strongly associated with one another. Spinal radiography is an appropriate screening tool for breeders attempting to diminish IDC and IDD in Dachshunds. A breeding program that screens dogs and selects against IDC can be expected to reduce the occurrence of IDD in future. Twenty-four to 48 months of age is a suitable age for screening.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Proportion of dogs with intervertebral disc disease (IDD) in intervertebral disc calcification (IDC) Grade 0 (0 calcifications), Grade 1 (1 – 2 calcifications), Grade 2 (3 – 4 calcifications), Grade 3 (≥5 calcifications) of the 193 Dachshunds radiographed for intervertebral disc calcification. Whiskers = CI 95%.
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Fig1: Proportion of dogs with intervertebral disc disease (IDD) in intervertebral disc calcification (IDC) Grade 0 (0 calcifications), Grade 1 (1 – 2 calcifications), Grade 2 (3 – 4 calcifications), Grade 3 (≥5 calcifications) of the 193 Dachshunds radiographed for intervertebral disc calcification. Whiskers = CI 95%.

Mentions: Of the 193 dogs, 59 (31%) had an IDD diagnosis made by a veterinarian (Table 1). Forty-three dogs (73%) had been treated conservatively with rest and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, 12 (20%) surgically and 4 (7%) had been euthanized because of the disease. One dog was operated twice and then euthanized because of the IDD, and is counted only in the surgically treated group. The number and proportion of dogs with and without IDD in IDC grades 0 – 3 are presented in Figure 1.Figure 1


Intervertebral disc disease in Dachshunds radiographically screened for intervertebral disc calcifications.

Lappalainen AK, Vaittinen E, Junnila J, Laitinen-Vapaavuori O - Acta Vet. Scand. (2014)

Proportion of dogs with intervertebral disc disease (IDD) in intervertebral disc calcification (IDC) Grade 0 (0 calcifications), Grade 1 (1 – 2 calcifications), Grade 2 (3 – 4 calcifications), Grade 3 (≥5 calcifications) of the 193 Dachshunds radiographed for intervertebral disc calcification. Whiskers = CI 95%.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4285634&req=5

Fig1: Proportion of dogs with intervertebral disc disease (IDD) in intervertebral disc calcification (IDC) Grade 0 (0 calcifications), Grade 1 (1 – 2 calcifications), Grade 2 (3 – 4 calcifications), Grade 3 (≥5 calcifications) of the 193 Dachshunds radiographed for intervertebral disc calcification. Whiskers = CI 95%.
Mentions: Of the 193 dogs, 59 (31%) had an IDD diagnosis made by a veterinarian (Table 1). Forty-three dogs (73%) had been treated conservatively with rest and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, 12 (20%) surgically and 4 (7%) had been euthanized because of the disease. One dog was operated twice and then euthanized because of the IDD, and is counted only in the surgically treated group. The number and proportion of dogs with and without IDD in IDC grades 0 – 3 are presented in Figure 1.Figure 1

Bottom Line: Radiographically detected IDC and IDD are common in Finnish Dachshunds and are strongly associated with one another.A breeding program that screens dogs and selects against IDC can be expected to reduce the occurrence of IDD in future.Twenty-four to 48 months of age is a suitable age for screening.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Section of Small Animal Surgery, Department of Equine and Small Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 57, FI - 00014 HU, Helsinki, Finland. anu.k.lappalainen@helsinki.fi.

ABSTRACT

Background: Intervertebral disc disease (IDD) is a very common neurological disease, Dachshunds being the breed most often affected. In this breed, IDD has a hereditary background and is associated with intervertebral disc calcification (IDC), an indicator of severe intervertebral disc degeneration. In Finland, spinal radiography is used, when screening for IDC before breeding Dachshunds. We evaluated the association between IDC and IDD in Finnish Dachshunds radiographically screened for IDC. A questionnaire was sent to owners of 193 radiographically screened Dachshunds aged at least ten years. Clinical signs indicative of IDD were compared with IDC grade (grade 0 = no calcifications, grade 1 = 1 - 2 calcifications, grade 2 = 3 - 4 calcifications and grade 3 = 5 or more calcifications) and with age at the time of the radiographic examination. The diagnosis of IDD was confirmed by a veterinarian.

Results: IDD was common in the study population with 31% of dogs being affected. IDD and IDC were clearly connected (P < 0.001); IDD was rare in dogs with no calcifications (grade 0) and common in dogs with severe IDC (grade 3). The IDC grade was strongly positively associated with frequency of back pain periods (P < 0.001), and dogs with IDC grade 3 had frequent periods of pain. Reluctance to jump onto a sofa had a strong positive association with back pain. No association existed between age of the dog at the time of the radiographic examination and clinical signs indicative of IDD.

Conclusions: Radiographically detected IDC and IDD are common in Finnish Dachshunds and are strongly associated with one another. Spinal radiography is an appropriate screening tool for breeders attempting to diminish IDC and IDD in Dachshunds. A breeding program that screens dogs and selects against IDC can be expected to reduce the occurrence of IDD in future. Twenty-four to 48 months of age is a suitable age for screening.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus