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Sodium, saturated fat, and trans fat content per 1,000 kilocalories: temporal trends in fast-food restaurants, United States, 2000-2013.

Urban LE, Roberts SB, Fierstein JL, Gary CE, Lichtenstein AH - Prev Chronic Dis (2014)

Bottom Line: Intakes of sodium, saturated fat, and trans fat remain high despite recommendations to limit these nutrients for cardiometabolic risk reduction.Post-2009, the major contributor of trans fat per 1,000 kcal was cheeseburgers; trans fat content of this item remained stable during the 14-year period.With the exception of French fries, little evidence was found during the 14-year period of product reformulation by restaurants to become more consistent with dietary guidance to reduce intakes of sodium and saturated fat.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Intakes of sodium, saturated fat, and trans fat remain high despite recommendations to limit these nutrients for cardiometabolic risk reduction. A major contributor to intake of these nutrients is foods prepared outside the home, particularly from fast-food restaurants.

Methods: We analyzed the nutrient content of frequently ordered items from 3 US national fast-food chains: fried potatoes (large French fries), cheeseburgers (2-oz and 4-oz), and a grilled chicken sandwich. We used an archival website to obtain data on sodium, saturated fat, and trans fat content for these items from 2000 through 2013. The amount of each nutrient per 1,000 kcal was calculated to determine whether there were trends in product reformulation.

Results: Sodium content per 1,000 kcal differed widely among the 3 chains by food item, precluding generalizations across chains. During the 14-year period, sodium content per 1,000 kcal for large French fries remained high for all 3 chains, although the range narrowed from 316-2,000 mg per 1,000 kcal in 2000 to 700-1,420 mg per 1,000 kcal in 2013. Among the items assessed, cheeseburgers were the main contributor of saturated fat, and there was little change in content per 1,000 kcal for this item during the 14-year period. In contrast, there was a sharp decline in saturated and trans fat content of large French fries per 1,000 kcal. Post-2009, the major contributor of trans fat per 1,000 kcal was cheeseburgers; trans fat content of this item remained stable during the 14-year period.

Conclusion: With the exception of French fries, little evidence was found during the 14-year period of product reformulation by restaurants to become more consistent with dietary guidance to reduce intakes of sodium and saturated fat.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Saturated fat content (g/1,000 kcal) for popular menu items at 3 large, national fast-food chains, United States, 2000–2013. Saturated fat content for large-sized French fries, 2 sizes of cheeseburgers (2-oz and 4-oz), and 1 size of grilled chicken sandwich from chains A, B and C. β estimates and P values derived from individual simple linear regression models; chain comparison P values derived from ANOVA (analysis of variance) models comparing mean values between restaurants. Abbreviation: NS, nonsignificant. a Difference is between Chain B versus Chains A and C.Chain/YearLarge French FriesCheeseburgerGrilled Chicken Sandwich2 oz4 ozSaturated Fat, g/1,000 kcalChain A20008.318.824.56.720018.318.224.56.720028.318.224.56.720038.318.224.57.520048.718.224.17.520059.619.423.54.8200610.519.423.54.8200710.520.023.54.820087.020.023.54.820097.020.023.54.820107.020.023.54.820117.020.023.55.720127.020.023.15.720137.020.023.15.7β−0.20.2−0.1−0.1P Value.07<.001<.001.04Chain B200020.325.022.49.4200114.024.321.89.1200214.022.235.38.6200314.022.222.58.6200414.022.922.57.9200514.022.922.57.9200612.021.221.16.9200712.021.221.16.9200812.020.620.88.2200910.320.620.88.2201011.122.620.88.2201111.120.021.17.420127.021.421.17.520137.021.421.17.8β−0.7−0.3−0.4−0.1P Value<.001<.01.14.02Chain C20007.018.821.44.820017.419.421.95.020028.016.121.95.020038.019.421.95.020048.019.421.94.220058.218.821.44.220067.418.821.44.120076.715.621.04.720087.319.221.04.720099.318.521.34.320108.318.521.34.420119.418.521.84.220129.420.725.89.020139.020.721.73.9β0.20.10.1<0.1P Value<.01.26.32.58Overall P value<.001a<.001aNS<.05
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Figure 2: Saturated fat content (g/1,000 kcal) for popular menu items at 3 large, national fast-food chains, United States, 2000–2013. Saturated fat content for large-sized French fries, 2 sizes of cheeseburgers (2-oz and 4-oz), and 1 size of grilled chicken sandwich from chains A, B and C. β estimates and P values derived from individual simple linear regression models; chain comparison P values derived from ANOVA (analysis of variance) models comparing mean values between restaurants. Abbreviation: NS, nonsignificant. a Difference is between Chain B versus Chains A and C.Chain/YearLarge French FriesCheeseburgerGrilled Chicken Sandwich2 oz4 ozSaturated Fat, g/1,000 kcalChain A20008.318.824.56.720018.318.224.56.720028.318.224.56.720038.318.224.57.520048.718.224.17.520059.619.423.54.8200610.519.423.54.8200710.520.023.54.820087.020.023.54.820097.020.023.54.820107.020.023.54.820117.020.023.55.720127.020.023.15.720137.020.023.15.7β−0.20.2−0.1−0.1P Value.07<.001<.001.04Chain B200020.325.022.49.4200114.024.321.89.1200214.022.235.38.6200314.022.222.58.6200414.022.922.57.9200514.022.922.57.9200612.021.221.16.9200712.021.221.16.9200812.020.620.88.2200910.320.620.88.2201011.122.620.88.2201111.120.021.17.420127.021.421.17.520137.021.421.17.8β−0.7−0.3−0.4−0.1P Value<.001<.01.14.02Chain C20007.018.821.44.820017.419.421.95.020028.016.121.95.020038.019.421.95.020048.019.421.94.220058.218.821.44.220067.418.821.44.120076.715.621.04.720087.319.221.04.720099.318.521.34.320108.318.521.34.420119.418.521.84.220129.420.725.89.020139.020.721.73.9β0.20.10.1<0.1P Value<.01.26.32.58Overall P value<.001a<.001aNS<.05

Mentions: Of the sandwich items assessed, cheeseburgers were the major contributor of saturated fat, with generally about 18 g to 25 g per 1,000 kcal (Figure 2). The saturated fat content of large French fries per 1,000 kcal post-2000 was modest for all chains (range, 6.7–14.0 g). There was a precipitous decline in Chain B’s French fries starting in 2001 and continuing throughout the 14-year period. By 2013, although the range of saturated fat content of French fries per 1,000 kcal was significantly different among chains, in practical terms, the differences were small. For either size of cheeseburger, with few exceptions, there was little change in the saturated fat content per 1,000 kcal between 2000 and 2013. There was a single-year spike in 2002 for Chain B’s large cheeseburger.


Sodium, saturated fat, and trans fat content per 1,000 kilocalories: temporal trends in fast-food restaurants, United States, 2000-2013.

Urban LE, Roberts SB, Fierstein JL, Gary CE, Lichtenstein AH - Prev Chronic Dis (2014)

Saturated fat content (g/1,000 kcal) for popular menu items at 3 large, national fast-food chains, United States, 2000–2013. Saturated fat content for large-sized French fries, 2 sizes of cheeseburgers (2-oz and 4-oz), and 1 size of grilled chicken sandwich from chains A, B and C. β estimates and P values derived from individual simple linear regression models; chain comparison P values derived from ANOVA (analysis of variance) models comparing mean values between restaurants. Abbreviation: NS, nonsignificant. a Difference is between Chain B versus Chains A and C.Chain/YearLarge French FriesCheeseburgerGrilled Chicken Sandwich2 oz4 ozSaturated Fat, g/1,000 kcalChain A20008.318.824.56.720018.318.224.56.720028.318.224.56.720038.318.224.57.520048.718.224.17.520059.619.423.54.8200610.519.423.54.8200710.520.023.54.820087.020.023.54.820097.020.023.54.820107.020.023.54.820117.020.023.55.720127.020.023.15.720137.020.023.15.7β−0.20.2−0.1−0.1P Value.07<.001<.001.04Chain B200020.325.022.49.4200114.024.321.89.1200214.022.235.38.6200314.022.222.58.6200414.022.922.57.9200514.022.922.57.9200612.021.221.16.9200712.021.221.16.9200812.020.620.88.2200910.320.620.88.2201011.122.620.88.2201111.120.021.17.420127.021.421.17.520137.021.421.17.8β−0.7−0.3−0.4−0.1P Value<.001<.01.14.02Chain C20007.018.821.44.820017.419.421.95.020028.016.121.95.020038.019.421.95.020048.019.421.94.220058.218.821.44.220067.418.821.44.120076.715.621.04.720087.319.221.04.720099.318.521.34.320108.318.521.34.420119.418.521.84.220129.420.725.89.020139.020.721.73.9β0.20.10.1<0.1P Value<.01.26.32.58Overall P value<.001a<.001aNS<.05
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Figure 2: Saturated fat content (g/1,000 kcal) for popular menu items at 3 large, national fast-food chains, United States, 2000–2013. Saturated fat content for large-sized French fries, 2 sizes of cheeseburgers (2-oz and 4-oz), and 1 size of grilled chicken sandwich from chains A, B and C. β estimates and P values derived from individual simple linear regression models; chain comparison P values derived from ANOVA (analysis of variance) models comparing mean values between restaurants. Abbreviation: NS, nonsignificant. a Difference is between Chain B versus Chains A and C.Chain/YearLarge French FriesCheeseburgerGrilled Chicken Sandwich2 oz4 ozSaturated Fat, g/1,000 kcalChain A20008.318.824.56.720018.318.224.56.720028.318.224.56.720038.318.224.57.520048.718.224.17.520059.619.423.54.8200610.519.423.54.8200710.520.023.54.820087.020.023.54.820097.020.023.54.820107.020.023.54.820117.020.023.55.720127.020.023.15.720137.020.023.15.7β−0.20.2−0.1−0.1P Value.07<.001<.001.04Chain B200020.325.022.49.4200114.024.321.89.1200214.022.235.38.6200314.022.222.58.6200414.022.922.57.9200514.022.922.57.9200612.021.221.16.9200712.021.221.16.9200812.020.620.88.2200910.320.620.88.2201011.122.620.88.2201111.120.021.17.420127.021.421.17.520137.021.421.17.8β−0.7−0.3−0.4−0.1P Value<.001<.01.14.02Chain C20007.018.821.44.820017.419.421.95.020028.016.121.95.020038.019.421.95.020048.019.421.94.220058.218.821.44.220067.418.821.44.120076.715.621.04.720087.319.221.04.720099.318.521.34.320108.318.521.34.420119.418.521.84.220129.420.725.89.020139.020.721.73.9β0.20.10.1<0.1P Value<.01.26.32.58Overall P value<.001a<.001aNS<.05
Mentions: Of the sandwich items assessed, cheeseburgers were the major contributor of saturated fat, with generally about 18 g to 25 g per 1,000 kcal (Figure 2). The saturated fat content of large French fries per 1,000 kcal post-2000 was modest for all chains (range, 6.7–14.0 g). There was a precipitous decline in Chain B’s French fries starting in 2001 and continuing throughout the 14-year period. By 2013, although the range of saturated fat content of French fries per 1,000 kcal was significantly different among chains, in practical terms, the differences were small. For either size of cheeseburger, with few exceptions, there was little change in the saturated fat content per 1,000 kcal between 2000 and 2013. There was a single-year spike in 2002 for Chain B’s large cheeseburger.

Bottom Line: Intakes of sodium, saturated fat, and trans fat remain high despite recommendations to limit these nutrients for cardiometabolic risk reduction.Post-2009, the major contributor of trans fat per 1,000 kcal was cheeseburgers; trans fat content of this item remained stable during the 14-year period.With the exception of French fries, little evidence was found during the 14-year period of product reformulation by restaurants to become more consistent with dietary guidance to reduce intakes of sodium and saturated fat.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Intakes of sodium, saturated fat, and trans fat remain high despite recommendations to limit these nutrients for cardiometabolic risk reduction. A major contributor to intake of these nutrients is foods prepared outside the home, particularly from fast-food restaurants.

Methods: We analyzed the nutrient content of frequently ordered items from 3 US national fast-food chains: fried potatoes (large French fries), cheeseburgers (2-oz and 4-oz), and a grilled chicken sandwich. We used an archival website to obtain data on sodium, saturated fat, and trans fat content for these items from 2000 through 2013. The amount of each nutrient per 1,000 kcal was calculated to determine whether there were trends in product reformulation.

Results: Sodium content per 1,000 kcal differed widely among the 3 chains by food item, precluding generalizations across chains. During the 14-year period, sodium content per 1,000 kcal for large French fries remained high for all 3 chains, although the range narrowed from 316-2,000 mg per 1,000 kcal in 2000 to 700-1,420 mg per 1,000 kcal in 2013. Among the items assessed, cheeseburgers were the main contributor of saturated fat, and there was little change in content per 1,000 kcal for this item during the 14-year period. In contrast, there was a sharp decline in saturated and trans fat content of large French fries per 1,000 kcal. Post-2009, the major contributor of trans fat per 1,000 kcal was cheeseburgers; trans fat content of this item remained stable during the 14-year period.

Conclusion: With the exception of French fries, little evidence was found during the 14-year period of product reformulation by restaurants to become more consistent with dietary guidance to reduce intakes of sodium and saturated fat.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus