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Epidemiology of human parechovirus, Aichi virus and salivirus in fecal samples from hospitalized children with gastroenteritis in Hong Kong.

Yip CC, Lo KL, Que TL, Lee RA, Chan KH, Yuen KY, Woo PC, Lau SK - Virol. J. (2014)

Bottom Line: Emerging human picornaviruses, including human parechovirus (HPeV), Aichi virus (AiV) and salivirus (SalV) were found to be associated with gastroenteritis, but their roles in enteric infections are not fully understood.Among 1,708 fecal samples subjected to RT-PCR using primers targeted to 5'UTR of HPeV, AiV and SalV, viruses were detected in 55 samples, with 50 positive for HPeV only, 3 positive for AiV only, 1 positive for both HPeV and AiV, and 1 positive for both HPeV and SalV.Co-detection of different pathogens was observed in 24 samples (43.6%) of 55 fecal samples positive for HPeV, AiV and SalV.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong. pcywoo@hkucc.hku.hk.

ABSTRACT

Background: Emerging human picornaviruses, including human parechovirus (HPeV), Aichi virus (AiV) and salivirus (SalV) were found to be associated with gastroenteritis, but their roles in enteric infections are not fully understood. In addition, no report on the circulation of these viruses in Hong Kong is available. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and genetic diversity of HPeV, AiV and SalV in fecal samples from hospitalized children with gastroenteritis in Hong Kong.

Methods: Fecal samples from hospitalized children with gastroenteritis were subject to detection of HPeV, AiV and SalV by RT-PCR using consensus primers targeted to their 5'UTRs. Positive samples were subject to capsid and/or 3CD region analysis for genotype determination. The epidemiology of HPeV, AiV and SalV infections was analyzed.

Results: Among 1,708 fecal samples subjected to RT-PCR using primers targeted to 5'UTR of HPeV, AiV and SalV, viruses were detected in 55 samples, with 50 positive for HPeV only, 3 positive for AiV only, 1 positive for both HPeV and AiV, and 1 positive for both HPeV and SalV. Phylogenetic analysis of the partial VP1 gene of the 33 HPeV strains revealed the presence of genotypes of HPeV- 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 10, among which HPeV-1 was the predominant genotype circulating in our population. The peak activity of HPeV infection was in fall. Of the 3 children with AiV infection, the 3 AiV strains were found to belong to genotype A based on the phylogenetic analysis of their partial VP1 and 3CD regions. The genotype of a SalV strain detected in this study could not be determined. Co-detection of different pathogens was observed in 24 samples (43.6%) of 55 fecal samples positive for HPeV, AiV and SalV.

Conclusions: HPeV, AiV and SalV were detected in fecal samples of hospitalized children with gastroenteritis in Hong Kong, with the former having the highest prevalence. HPeV-1 was the predominant genotype among HPeVs, while genotype A was the predominant genotype among AiVs in this study.

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Phylogenetic trees of AiV strains from 3 patients. (A) Sequence for 295 nucleotide position in VP1 gene was included in the analysis. (B) Sequence for 342 nucleotide positions in partial 3CD region was included in the analysis. The trees are inferred by the neighbor-joining method with bootstrap value calculated from 1000 trees. The scale bar indicates the estimated number of substitutions of 50 nucleotides as indicated. The AiV strains detected in the present study are highlighted in grey.
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Fig4: Phylogenetic trees of AiV strains from 3 patients. (A) Sequence for 295 nucleotide position in VP1 gene was included in the analysis. (B) Sequence for 342 nucleotide positions in partial 3CD region was included in the analysis. The trees are inferred by the neighbor-joining method with bootstrap value calculated from 1000 trees. The scale bar indicates the estimated number of substitutions of 50 nucleotides as indicated. The AiV strains detected in the present study are highlighted in grey.

Mentions: For the genotyping of AiV, the partial VP1 capsid gene and 3CD region of all 3 AiV strains were amplified and sequenced. A phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences of the partial VP1 gene of AiV showed that 2 AiV strains (AiV patient 1/HK/Feb05 and AiV patient 3/HK/Jun05) were closely related and formed a clade distinct from another strain AiV patient 2/HK/May05. Nevertheless, these 3 AiV strains clustered with genotype A strains identified in other countries (Figure 4A). This was consistent with the phylogenetic result using nucleotide sequences of the partial 3CD region of AiV (Figure 4B). These findings suggested that only one genotype, genotype A, of AiV was detected in Hong Kong in 2005. For the AiV-positive patient with multiple detections, the partial VP1 and 3CD sequences of AiV strains shed from the same patient were identical. For the genotyping of SalV, the partial VP1 gene and 3CD region of the SalV strain detected in this study could not be amplified, thus the genotype of this strain cannot be determined.Figure 3


Epidemiology of human parechovirus, Aichi virus and salivirus in fecal samples from hospitalized children with gastroenteritis in Hong Kong.

Yip CC, Lo KL, Que TL, Lee RA, Chan KH, Yuen KY, Woo PC, Lau SK - Virol. J. (2014)

Phylogenetic trees of AiV strains from 3 patients. (A) Sequence for 295 nucleotide position in VP1 gene was included in the analysis. (B) Sequence for 342 nucleotide positions in partial 3CD region was included in the analysis. The trees are inferred by the neighbor-joining method with bootstrap value calculated from 1000 trees. The scale bar indicates the estimated number of substitutions of 50 nucleotides as indicated. The AiV strains detected in the present study are highlighted in grey.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4283143&req=5

Fig4: Phylogenetic trees of AiV strains from 3 patients. (A) Sequence for 295 nucleotide position in VP1 gene was included in the analysis. (B) Sequence for 342 nucleotide positions in partial 3CD region was included in the analysis. The trees are inferred by the neighbor-joining method with bootstrap value calculated from 1000 trees. The scale bar indicates the estimated number of substitutions of 50 nucleotides as indicated. The AiV strains detected in the present study are highlighted in grey.
Mentions: For the genotyping of AiV, the partial VP1 capsid gene and 3CD region of all 3 AiV strains were amplified and sequenced. A phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences of the partial VP1 gene of AiV showed that 2 AiV strains (AiV patient 1/HK/Feb05 and AiV patient 3/HK/Jun05) were closely related and formed a clade distinct from another strain AiV patient 2/HK/May05. Nevertheless, these 3 AiV strains clustered with genotype A strains identified in other countries (Figure 4A). This was consistent with the phylogenetic result using nucleotide sequences of the partial 3CD region of AiV (Figure 4B). These findings suggested that only one genotype, genotype A, of AiV was detected in Hong Kong in 2005. For the AiV-positive patient with multiple detections, the partial VP1 and 3CD sequences of AiV strains shed from the same patient were identical. For the genotyping of SalV, the partial VP1 gene and 3CD region of the SalV strain detected in this study could not be amplified, thus the genotype of this strain cannot be determined.Figure 3

Bottom Line: Emerging human picornaviruses, including human parechovirus (HPeV), Aichi virus (AiV) and salivirus (SalV) were found to be associated with gastroenteritis, but their roles in enteric infections are not fully understood.Among 1,708 fecal samples subjected to RT-PCR using primers targeted to 5'UTR of HPeV, AiV and SalV, viruses were detected in 55 samples, with 50 positive for HPeV only, 3 positive for AiV only, 1 positive for both HPeV and AiV, and 1 positive for both HPeV and SalV.Co-detection of different pathogens was observed in 24 samples (43.6%) of 55 fecal samples positive for HPeV, AiV and SalV.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong. pcywoo@hkucc.hku.hk.

ABSTRACT

Background: Emerging human picornaviruses, including human parechovirus (HPeV), Aichi virus (AiV) and salivirus (SalV) were found to be associated with gastroenteritis, but their roles in enteric infections are not fully understood. In addition, no report on the circulation of these viruses in Hong Kong is available. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and genetic diversity of HPeV, AiV and SalV in fecal samples from hospitalized children with gastroenteritis in Hong Kong.

Methods: Fecal samples from hospitalized children with gastroenteritis were subject to detection of HPeV, AiV and SalV by RT-PCR using consensus primers targeted to their 5'UTRs. Positive samples were subject to capsid and/or 3CD region analysis for genotype determination. The epidemiology of HPeV, AiV and SalV infections was analyzed.

Results: Among 1,708 fecal samples subjected to RT-PCR using primers targeted to 5'UTR of HPeV, AiV and SalV, viruses were detected in 55 samples, with 50 positive for HPeV only, 3 positive for AiV only, 1 positive for both HPeV and AiV, and 1 positive for both HPeV and SalV. Phylogenetic analysis of the partial VP1 gene of the 33 HPeV strains revealed the presence of genotypes of HPeV- 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 10, among which HPeV-1 was the predominant genotype circulating in our population. The peak activity of HPeV infection was in fall. Of the 3 children with AiV infection, the 3 AiV strains were found to belong to genotype A based on the phylogenetic analysis of their partial VP1 and 3CD regions. The genotype of a SalV strain detected in this study could not be determined. Co-detection of different pathogens was observed in 24 samples (43.6%) of 55 fecal samples positive for HPeV, AiV and SalV.

Conclusions: HPeV, AiV and SalV were detected in fecal samples of hospitalized children with gastroenteritis in Hong Kong, with the former having the highest prevalence. HPeV-1 was the predominant genotype among HPeVs, while genotype A was the predominant genotype among AiVs in this study.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus