Translating genomics research into control of tuberculosis: lessons learned and future prospects.
Bottom Line: Genomics research has enabled crucial insights into the adaptive evolution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis as an obligate human pathogen.Here, we highlight major recent advances and evaluate the potential for genomics approaches to inform tuberculosis control efforts in high-burden settings.
Genomics research has enabled crucial insights into the adaptive evolution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis as an obligate human pathogen. Here, we highlight major recent advances and evaluate the potential for genomics approaches to inform tuberculosis control efforts in high-burden settings.
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Mentions: The application of genomics and other ’omics technologies in developing a systems biology of TB is central to global efforts towards the development of new vaccines, diagnostics and drugs for TB. The landmark publication in 1998 by Stewart Cole and colleagues  of the first genome sequence of a strain of M. tuberculosis ushered in a new era in TB research in which genome-scale studies have provided crucial insights into the ancient and modern evolutionary history of M. tuberculosis, the genomics of drug resistance, the biology of M. tuberculosis as an intracellular pathogen, and the host response to infection with this organism (Figure 1). In this article, we highlight the major advances in TB research that have been enabled by the genomics revolution. We then identify key areas of research and development that will be required in order to harness the full potential of genomics approaches for the control of TB in endemic regions, discuss some of the major challenges and obstacles that will need to be addressed and overcome in this endeavor, and conclude by considering the implications of the lessons learned from TB in the context of other infectious diseases.Figure 1