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Induced neurocysticercosis in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) produces clinical signs and lesions similar to natural disease in man.

Chowdhury N, Saleque A, Sood NK, Singla LD - ScientificWorldJournal (2014)

Bottom Line: Neurocysticercosis is a serious endemic zoonosis resulting in increased cases of seizure and epilepsy in humans.The genesis of clinical manifestations of the disease through experimental animal models is poorly exploited.It was concluded that the inflammatory and immune response exerted by the host against cysticerci, in turn, led to histopathological lesions and the resultant clinical signs thereof.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Veterinary Parasitology, College of Veterinary Science, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana 141004, India.

ABSTRACT
Neurocysticercosis is a serious endemic zoonosis resulting in increased cases of seizure and epilepsy in humans. The genesis of clinical manifestations of the disease through experimental animal models is poorly exploited. The monkeys may prove useful for the purpose due to their behavior and cognitive responses mimicking man. In this study, neurocysticercosis was induced in two rhesus monkeys each with 12,000 and 6,000 eggs, whereas three monkeys were given placebo. The monkeys given higher dose developed hyperexcitability, epileptic seizures, muscular tremors, digital cramps at 10 DPI, and finally paralysis of limbs, followed by death on 67 DPI, whereas the monkeys given lower dose showed delayed and milder clinical signs. On necropsy, all the infected monkeys showed numerous cysticerci in the brain. Histopathologically, heavily infected monkeys revealed liquefactive necrosis and formation of irregular cystic cavities lined by atrophied parenchymal septa with remnants of neuropil of the cerebrum. In contrast, the monkeys infected with lower dose showed formation of typical foreign body granulomas characterized by central liquefaction surrounded by chronic inflammatory response. It was concluded that the inflammatory and immune response exerted by the host against cysticerci, in turn, led to histopathological lesions and the resultant clinical signs thereof.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Photograph of monkey 46 DPI fed 12,000 eggs showing acute pressure syndrome and rapidly developing paralysis of hind quarter.
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fig1: Photograph of monkey 46 DPI fed 12,000 eggs showing acute pressure syndrome and rapidly developing paralysis of hind quarter.

Mentions: The heavily infected monkeys given 12,000 eggs each showed hyperexcitability at about 10 DPI, which lasted for 3–5 days. Between 15 and 45 DPI both monkeys appeared dull, developed progressive anorexia, preferred to sit quietly and, at times, were even found rolling. From 50 DPI, the monkeys developed acute dyspnoea, nervous compression, excitation syndrome, including epileptic seizures, muscular tremors, progressive paralysis of hind limbs (Figure 1), and digital cramps along with grinding of teeth, groaning, coughing, tendency to vomit, and excessive salivation. The animals thereafter showed profound weakness and failed to bear weight on the hind quarters, developed paralysis of both the hind and fore limbs, and, finally, died on 67 and 132 DPI, respectively.


Induced neurocysticercosis in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) produces clinical signs and lesions similar to natural disease in man.

Chowdhury N, Saleque A, Sood NK, Singla LD - ScientificWorldJournal (2014)

Photograph of monkey 46 DPI fed 12,000 eggs showing acute pressure syndrome and rapidly developing paralysis of hind quarter.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4281405&req=5

fig1: Photograph of monkey 46 DPI fed 12,000 eggs showing acute pressure syndrome and rapidly developing paralysis of hind quarter.
Mentions: The heavily infected monkeys given 12,000 eggs each showed hyperexcitability at about 10 DPI, which lasted for 3–5 days. Between 15 and 45 DPI both monkeys appeared dull, developed progressive anorexia, preferred to sit quietly and, at times, were even found rolling. From 50 DPI, the monkeys developed acute dyspnoea, nervous compression, excitation syndrome, including epileptic seizures, muscular tremors, progressive paralysis of hind limbs (Figure 1), and digital cramps along with grinding of teeth, groaning, coughing, tendency to vomit, and excessive salivation. The animals thereafter showed profound weakness and failed to bear weight on the hind quarters, developed paralysis of both the hind and fore limbs, and, finally, died on 67 and 132 DPI, respectively.

Bottom Line: Neurocysticercosis is a serious endemic zoonosis resulting in increased cases of seizure and epilepsy in humans.The genesis of clinical manifestations of the disease through experimental animal models is poorly exploited.It was concluded that the inflammatory and immune response exerted by the host against cysticerci, in turn, led to histopathological lesions and the resultant clinical signs thereof.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Veterinary Parasitology, College of Veterinary Science, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana 141004, India.

ABSTRACT
Neurocysticercosis is a serious endemic zoonosis resulting in increased cases of seizure and epilepsy in humans. The genesis of clinical manifestations of the disease through experimental animal models is poorly exploited. The monkeys may prove useful for the purpose due to their behavior and cognitive responses mimicking man. In this study, neurocysticercosis was induced in two rhesus monkeys each with 12,000 and 6,000 eggs, whereas three monkeys were given placebo. The monkeys given higher dose developed hyperexcitability, epileptic seizures, muscular tremors, digital cramps at 10 DPI, and finally paralysis of limbs, followed by death on 67 DPI, whereas the monkeys given lower dose showed delayed and milder clinical signs. On necropsy, all the infected monkeys showed numerous cysticerci in the brain. Histopathologically, heavily infected monkeys revealed liquefactive necrosis and formation of irregular cystic cavities lined by atrophied parenchymal septa with remnants of neuropil of the cerebrum. In contrast, the monkeys infected with lower dose showed formation of typical foreign body granulomas characterized by central liquefaction surrounded by chronic inflammatory response. It was concluded that the inflammatory and immune response exerted by the host against cysticerci, in turn, led to histopathological lesions and the resultant clinical signs thereof.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus