Limits...
Innate lymphoid cells, possible interaction with microbiota.

Moro K, Koyasu S - Semin Immunopathol (2014)

Bottom Line: ILCs play important roles in protection against various invading microbes including multicellular parasites, and in the maintenance of homeostasis and repair of epithelial layers.Because epithelial cells sense alterations in environmental cues, it is important to understand the functional interaction between epithelial cells, ILCs, and environmental factors such as commensal microbiota.We discuss in this review developmental pathways of ILCs, their functions, and contribution of commensal microbiota to the differentiation and function of ILCs.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory for Immune Cell Systems, RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences (IMS), 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, , Tsurumi-ku, , Yokohama, 230-0045, Japan, kazuyo.moro@riken.jp.

ABSTRACT
Recent studies have identified novel lymphocyte subsets named innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) lacking antigen-specific receptors. ILCs are present in a wide variety of epithelial compartments and occupy an intermediate position between acquired immune cells and myeloid cells. ILCs are now classified into three groups: group 1 ILC, group 2 ILC, and group 3 ILC based on their cytokine production patterns that correspond to the helper T cell subsets Th1, Th2, and Th17, respectively. ILCs play important roles in protection against various invading microbes including multicellular parasites, and in the maintenance of homeostasis and repair of epithelial layers. Excessive activation of ILCs, however, leads to various inflammatory disease conditions. ILCs have thus attracted interests of many researchers in the fields of infectious immunity, inflammatory diseases, and allergic diseases. Because epithelial cells sense alterations in environmental cues, it is important to understand the functional interaction between epithelial cells, ILCs, and environmental factors such as commensal microbiota. We discuss in this review developmental pathways of ILCs, their functions, and contribution of commensal microbiota to the differentiation and function of ILCs.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Role of group 3 ILCs. In response to IL-23 produced by dendritic cells (DC), NKp46−ILC3s produce IL-17 for the activation of neutrophil migration and protection against bacteria through antibiotic peptide secretion by epithelial cells. NKp46+ILC3s produce IL-22 for tissue repair. CCR6+ LTi cells in the isolated lymphoid follicles (ILF) interact with stromal cells via lymphotoxin (LT) and LT receptor to enhance chemokine production for lymphocerastism. Macrophages produce IL-1β to induce GM-CSF by both LTi cells and NKp46+ILC3s, which seems to be important for the induction of oral tolerance
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4281376&req=5

Fig4: Role of group 3 ILCs. In response to IL-23 produced by dendritic cells (DC), NKp46−ILC3s produce IL-17 for the activation of neutrophil migration and protection against bacteria through antibiotic peptide secretion by epithelial cells. NKp46+ILC3s produce IL-22 for tissue repair. CCR6+ LTi cells in the isolated lymphoid follicles (ILF) interact with stromal cells via lymphotoxin (LT) and LT receptor to enhance chemokine production for lymphocerastism. Macrophages produce IL-1β to induce GM-CSF by both LTi cells and NKp46+ILC3s, which seems to be important for the induction of oral tolerance

Mentions: In 1992, Kelly and Scollay reported on a novel cell subset expressing CD4 but not CD3 in neonatal LN cells [47]. The function of this population was unclear until two research groups identified novel subsets in 1997, which were later called LTi cells: CD4+CD3−LTβ+ cells that express α4β7 and are involved in the formation of lymph nodes [48] and IL-7R+ cells that induce formation of Peyer’s patches [49, 48]. During late fetal life, LTi cells produce LTα and LTβ in response to IL-7 or RANKL [50] stimulation and induce VCAM-1 [49, 51] and MAdCAM-1 [52] expression on lymphoid tissue organizer (LTo) cells that will later develop into LN or Peyer’s patch anlagen (Fig. 4). Entry of T cells and B cells into the lymphoid anlagen to complete maturation of lymphoid tissues depends on chemokines such as CXCL13, CCL19, or CCL21 from LTo cells and is a final step of lymphocerastism. Retinoic acid-related orphan receptor γt (RORγt) was demonstrated to be an essential factor for the development of LTi cells, and lack of RORγt resulted in hypoplastic defects of lymph nodes and PP but not spleen, suggesting that LTi cells are involved in the formation of lymph nodes and Peyer’s patches but not spleen [53]. It is currently well-known that LTi cells are not fetal-specific cells but remain in adult tissues, and are involved in the formation of secondary lymphoid tissues such as isolated lymphoid follicles (ILF) in the intestine.Fig. 4


Innate lymphoid cells, possible interaction with microbiota.

Moro K, Koyasu S - Semin Immunopathol (2014)

Role of group 3 ILCs. In response to IL-23 produced by dendritic cells (DC), NKp46−ILC3s produce IL-17 for the activation of neutrophil migration and protection against bacteria through antibiotic peptide secretion by epithelial cells. NKp46+ILC3s produce IL-22 for tissue repair. CCR6+ LTi cells in the isolated lymphoid follicles (ILF) interact with stromal cells via lymphotoxin (LT) and LT receptor to enhance chemokine production for lymphocerastism. Macrophages produce IL-1β to induce GM-CSF by both LTi cells and NKp46+ILC3s, which seems to be important for the induction of oral tolerance
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4281376&req=5

Fig4: Role of group 3 ILCs. In response to IL-23 produced by dendritic cells (DC), NKp46−ILC3s produce IL-17 for the activation of neutrophil migration and protection against bacteria through antibiotic peptide secretion by epithelial cells. NKp46+ILC3s produce IL-22 for tissue repair. CCR6+ LTi cells in the isolated lymphoid follicles (ILF) interact with stromal cells via lymphotoxin (LT) and LT receptor to enhance chemokine production for lymphocerastism. Macrophages produce IL-1β to induce GM-CSF by both LTi cells and NKp46+ILC3s, which seems to be important for the induction of oral tolerance
Mentions: In 1992, Kelly and Scollay reported on a novel cell subset expressing CD4 but not CD3 in neonatal LN cells [47]. The function of this population was unclear until two research groups identified novel subsets in 1997, which were later called LTi cells: CD4+CD3−LTβ+ cells that express α4β7 and are involved in the formation of lymph nodes [48] and IL-7R+ cells that induce formation of Peyer’s patches [49, 48]. During late fetal life, LTi cells produce LTα and LTβ in response to IL-7 or RANKL [50] stimulation and induce VCAM-1 [49, 51] and MAdCAM-1 [52] expression on lymphoid tissue organizer (LTo) cells that will later develop into LN or Peyer’s patch anlagen (Fig. 4). Entry of T cells and B cells into the lymphoid anlagen to complete maturation of lymphoid tissues depends on chemokines such as CXCL13, CCL19, or CCL21 from LTo cells and is a final step of lymphocerastism. Retinoic acid-related orphan receptor γt (RORγt) was demonstrated to be an essential factor for the development of LTi cells, and lack of RORγt resulted in hypoplastic defects of lymph nodes and PP but not spleen, suggesting that LTi cells are involved in the formation of lymph nodes and Peyer’s patches but not spleen [53]. It is currently well-known that LTi cells are not fetal-specific cells but remain in adult tissues, and are involved in the formation of secondary lymphoid tissues such as isolated lymphoid follicles (ILF) in the intestine.Fig. 4

Bottom Line: ILCs play important roles in protection against various invading microbes including multicellular parasites, and in the maintenance of homeostasis and repair of epithelial layers.Because epithelial cells sense alterations in environmental cues, it is important to understand the functional interaction between epithelial cells, ILCs, and environmental factors such as commensal microbiota.We discuss in this review developmental pathways of ILCs, their functions, and contribution of commensal microbiota to the differentiation and function of ILCs.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory for Immune Cell Systems, RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences (IMS), 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, , Tsurumi-ku, , Yokohama, 230-0045, Japan, kazuyo.moro@riken.jp.

ABSTRACT
Recent studies have identified novel lymphocyte subsets named innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) lacking antigen-specific receptors. ILCs are present in a wide variety of epithelial compartments and occupy an intermediate position between acquired immune cells and myeloid cells. ILCs are now classified into three groups: group 1 ILC, group 2 ILC, and group 3 ILC based on their cytokine production patterns that correspond to the helper T cell subsets Th1, Th2, and Th17, respectively. ILCs play important roles in protection against various invading microbes including multicellular parasites, and in the maintenance of homeostasis and repair of epithelial layers. Excessive activation of ILCs, however, leads to various inflammatory disease conditions. ILCs have thus attracted interests of many researchers in the fields of infectious immunity, inflammatory diseases, and allergic diseases. Because epithelial cells sense alterations in environmental cues, it is important to understand the functional interaction between epithelial cells, ILCs, and environmental factors such as commensal microbiota. We discuss in this review developmental pathways of ILCs, their functions, and contribution of commensal microbiota to the differentiation and function of ILCs.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus