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Differential vulnerability to the punishment of cocaine related behaviours: effects of locus of punishment, cocaine taking history and alternative reinforcer availability.

Pelloux Y, Murray JE, Everitt BJ - Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (2014)

Bottom Line: The availability of alternative reinforcement has been shown to reduce drug use, but it remains unclear whether it facilitates a reduction or cessation of drug seeking or taking.We compared the effects of punishment of cocaine seeking or taking behaviour after brief or extended cocaine-taking histories when behavioural reallocation was facilitated or not by making available an alternative ingestive reinforcer (sucrose).Making available an alternative reinforcer facilitates disengagement from punished cocaine use through at least two different processes but remains ineffective in a subpopulation of vulnerable animals, which continued to seek cocaine despite the aversive consequence of punishment and the presence of the alternative positive reinforcer.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institut de Neuroscience de la Timone, UMR 7289, CNRS Aix-Marseille Université, Marseille, France, yann.pelloux@univ-amu.fr.

ABSTRACT

Background: The availability of alternative reinforcement has been shown to reduce drug use, but it remains unclear whether it facilitates a reduction or cessation of drug seeking or taking.

Objectives: We compared the effects of punishment of cocaine seeking or taking behaviour after brief or extended cocaine-taking histories when behavioural reallocation was facilitated or not by making available an alternative ingestive reinforcer (sucrose).

Methods: In the first experiment, punishment of either seeking or taking responses was introduced immediately after training on the seeking-taking chained schedule. In the second experiment, punishment of cocaine seeking was introduced after 12 additional days of either 1 or 6 h daily access to cocaine self-administration. In both experiments, beginning 1 week before the introduction of punishment, a subset of rats had concurrent nose poke access to sucrose while seeking or taking cocaine.

Results: The presence of an alternative source of reinforcement markedly facilitated behavioural reallocation from punished cocaine taking after acquisition. It also facilitated punishment-induced suppression of cocaine seeking after an extensive cocaine self-administration history likely by prompting goal-directed motivational control over drug use. However, a significant proportion of rats were deemed compulsive-maintaining drug use after an extensive cocaine history despite the presence of abstinence-promoting positive and negative incentives.

Conclusion: Making available an alternative reinforcer facilitates disengagement from punished cocaine use through at least two different processes but remains ineffective in a subpopulation of vulnerable animals, which continued to seek cocaine despite the aversive consequence of punishment and the presence of the alternative positive reinforcer.

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a Distributions of the mean number of seeking responses across the four last days of intermittent punishment of cocaine seeking responding in the “ShA” (white triangle), “LgA” (grey triangle), “ShA + sucrose” (white circle) and “LgA + sucrose” (grey circle) groups. b Proportion of compulsive animals in the ShA (grey histograms), “LgA” (black histogram), “ShA + sucrose” (waved grey histograms) and “LgA + sucrose” (waved black histograms) groups. c Mean number of seeking responses per session or d nose poke rate while seeking across the last 4 days of intermittent punishment of cocaine seeking responding in non-compulsive (grey borders) and compulsive (black borders) and after limited (grey histograms) or extended/escalated (black histograms) cocaine self-administration history. In cdiamond-filled histograms represent the mean for the animals without (diamond histograms) and the circle-filled histogram with the availability to concomitantly nose poke for sucrose. Average ± SEM of 3 to 27 animals per group. *Tukey’s HSD; p < 0.05
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Fig4: a Distributions of the mean number of seeking responses across the four last days of intermittent punishment of cocaine seeking responding in the “ShA” (white triangle), “LgA” (grey triangle), “ShA + sucrose” (white circle) and “LgA + sucrose” (grey circle) groups. b Proportion of compulsive animals in the ShA (grey histograms), “LgA” (black histogram), “ShA + sucrose” (waved grey histograms) and “LgA + sucrose” (waved black histograms) groups. c Mean number of seeking responses per session or d nose poke rate while seeking across the last 4 days of intermittent punishment of cocaine seeking responding in non-compulsive (grey borders) and compulsive (black borders) and after limited (grey histograms) or extended/escalated (black histograms) cocaine self-administration history. In cdiamond-filled histograms represent the mean for the animals without (diamond histograms) and the circle-filled histogram with the availability to concomitantly nose poke for sucrose. Average ± SEM of 3 to 27 animals per group. *Tukey’s HSD; p < 0.05

Mentions: The apparent lack of a difference between ShA + sucrose and LgA + sucrose groups in the number of cycles completed obscured an important variation in the distribution of the population of rats (Kolmogoroff-Smirnoff Z = 1.51, p = 0.021). Whereas the distribution of the ShA + sucrose group was not significantly different from a normal distribution, the distribution of the LgA + sucrose group significantly differed from a normal or lognormal distribution (Wilks-Shapiro’s W = 0.824, p < 0.001; W = 0.916, p < 0.001, respectively). Thus, in contrast to the relative homogeneity within the ShA + sucrose group, rats in the LgA + sucrose group appeared to fall into two subgroups, one sensitive to punishment and one resistant to punishment as we have reported previously (Pelloux et al. 2007). Investigation of the distributions of seeking performance across the last 4 days of punishment within the ShA, the ShA + sucrose, the LgA and LgA + sucrose revealed that all distributions were skewed with only a minority of rats performing over 100 seeking responses per session (Fig. 4a). The proportion of these compulsive animals was higher in animals with an escalated/prolonged cocaine history (Khi2(1) = 3.82, p = 0.05) with the presence of an alternative reinforcer having no impact on these proportions (Fig. 4b). Nevertheless, the presence of an alternative reinforcer reduced seeking performance in punishment-sensitive animals after extended/escalated cocaine intake [interaction history × alternative F(1,79) = 13; p < 0.001; HSD p < 0.05] (Fig. 4c).Fig. 4


Differential vulnerability to the punishment of cocaine related behaviours: effects of locus of punishment, cocaine taking history and alternative reinforcer availability.

Pelloux Y, Murray JE, Everitt BJ - Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (2014)

a Distributions of the mean number of seeking responses across the four last days of intermittent punishment of cocaine seeking responding in the “ShA” (white triangle), “LgA” (grey triangle), “ShA + sucrose” (white circle) and “LgA + sucrose” (grey circle) groups. b Proportion of compulsive animals in the ShA (grey histograms), “LgA” (black histogram), “ShA + sucrose” (waved grey histograms) and “LgA + sucrose” (waved black histograms) groups. c Mean number of seeking responses per session or d nose poke rate while seeking across the last 4 days of intermittent punishment of cocaine seeking responding in non-compulsive (grey borders) and compulsive (black borders) and after limited (grey histograms) or extended/escalated (black histograms) cocaine self-administration history. In cdiamond-filled histograms represent the mean for the animals without (diamond histograms) and the circle-filled histogram with the availability to concomitantly nose poke for sucrose. Average ± SEM of 3 to 27 animals per group. *Tukey’s HSD; p < 0.05
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Fig4: a Distributions of the mean number of seeking responses across the four last days of intermittent punishment of cocaine seeking responding in the “ShA” (white triangle), “LgA” (grey triangle), “ShA + sucrose” (white circle) and “LgA + sucrose” (grey circle) groups. b Proportion of compulsive animals in the ShA (grey histograms), “LgA” (black histogram), “ShA + sucrose” (waved grey histograms) and “LgA + sucrose” (waved black histograms) groups. c Mean number of seeking responses per session or d nose poke rate while seeking across the last 4 days of intermittent punishment of cocaine seeking responding in non-compulsive (grey borders) and compulsive (black borders) and after limited (grey histograms) or extended/escalated (black histograms) cocaine self-administration history. In cdiamond-filled histograms represent the mean for the animals without (diamond histograms) and the circle-filled histogram with the availability to concomitantly nose poke for sucrose. Average ± SEM of 3 to 27 animals per group. *Tukey’s HSD; p < 0.05
Mentions: The apparent lack of a difference between ShA + sucrose and LgA + sucrose groups in the number of cycles completed obscured an important variation in the distribution of the population of rats (Kolmogoroff-Smirnoff Z = 1.51, p = 0.021). Whereas the distribution of the ShA + sucrose group was not significantly different from a normal distribution, the distribution of the LgA + sucrose group significantly differed from a normal or lognormal distribution (Wilks-Shapiro’s W = 0.824, p < 0.001; W = 0.916, p < 0.001, respectively). Thus, in contrast to the relative homogeneity within the ShA + sucrose group, rats in the LgA + sucrose group appeared to fall into two subgroups, one sensitive to punishment and one resistant to punishment as we have reported previously (Pelloux et al. 2007). Investigation of the distributions of seeking performance across the last 4 days of punishment within the ShA, the ShA + sucrose, the LgA and LgA + sucrose revealed that all distributions were skewed with only a minority of rats performing over 100 seeking responses per session (Fig. 4a). The proportion of these compulsive animals was higher in animals with an escalated/prolonged cocaine history (Khi2(1) = 3.82, p = 0.05) with the presence of an alternative reinforcer having no impact on these proportions (Fig. 4b). Nevertheless, the presence of an alternative reinforcer reduced seeking performance in punishment-sensitive animals after extended/escalated cocaine intake [interaction history × alternative F(1,79) = 13; p < 0.001; HSD p < 0.05] (Fig. 4c).Fig. 4

Bottom Line: The availability of alternative reinforcement has been shown to reduce drug use, but it remains unclear whether it facilitates a reduction or cessation of drug seeking or taking.We compared the effects of punishment of cocaine seeking or taking behaviour after brief or extended cocaine-taking histories when behavioural reallocation was facilitated or not by making available an alternative ingestive reinforcer (sucrose).Making available an alternative reinforcer facilitates disengagement from punished cocaine use through at least two different processes but remains ineffective in a subpopulation of vulnerable animals, which continued to seek cocaine despite the aversive consequence of punishment and the presence of the alternative positive reinforcer.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institut de Neuroscience de la Timone, UMR 7289, CNRS Aix-Marseille Université, Marseille, France, yann.pelloux@univ-amu.fr.

ABSTRACT

Background: The availability of alternative reinforcement has been shown to reduce drug use, but it remains unclear whether it facilitates a reduction or cessation of drug seeking or taking.

Objectives: We compared the effects of punishment of cocaine seeking or taking behaviour after brief or extended cocaine-taking histories when behavioural reallocation was facilitated or not by making available an alternative ingestive reinforcer (sucrose).

Methods: In the first experiment, punishment of either seeking or taking responses was introduced immediately after training on the seeking-taking chained schedule. In the second experiment, punishment of cocaine seeking was introduced after 12 additional days of either 1 or 6 h daily access to cocaine self-administration. In both experiments, beginning 1 week before the introduction of punishment, a subset of rats had concurrent nose poke access to sucrose while seeking or taking cocaine.

Results: The presence of an alternative source of reinforcement markedly facilitated behavioural reallocation from punished cocaine taking after acquisition. It also facilitated punishment-induced suppression of cocaine seeking after an extensive cocaine self-administration history likely by prompting goal-directed motivational control over drug use. However, a significant proportion of rats were deemed compulsive-maintaining drug use after an extensive cocaine history despite the presence of abstinence-promoting positive and negative incentives.

Conclusion: Making available an alternative reinforcer facilitates disengagement from punished cocaine use through at least two different processes but remains ineffective in a subpopulation of vulnerable animals, which continued to seek cocaine despite the aversive consequence of punishment and the presence of the alternative positive reinforcer.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus