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Differential vulnerability to the punishment of cocaine related behaviours: effects of locus of punishment, cocaine taking history and alternative reinforcer availability.

Pelloux Y, Murray JE, Everitt BJ - Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (2014)

Bottom Line: The availability of alternative reinforcement has been shown to reduce drug use, but it remains unclear whether it facilitates a reduction or cessation of drug seeking or taking.We compared the effects of punishment of cocaine seeking or taking behaviour after brief or extended cocaine-taking histories when behavioural reallocation was facilitated or not by making available an alternative ingestive reinforcer (sucrose).In the first experiment, punishment of either seeking or taking responses was introduced immediately after training on the seeking-taking chained schedule.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institut de Neuroscience de la Timone, UMR 7289, CNRS Aix-Marseille Université, Marseille, France, yann.pelloux@univ-amu.fr.

ABSTRACT

Background: The availability of alternative reinforcement has been shown to reduce drug use, but it remains unclear whether it facilitates a reduction or cessation of drug seeking or taking.

Objectives: We compared the effects of punishment of cocaine seeking or taking behaviour after brief or extended cocaine-taking histories when behavioural reallocation was facilitated or not by making available an alternative ingestive reinforcer (sucrose).

Methods: In the first experiment, punishment of either seeking or taking responses was introduced immediately after training on the seeking-taking chained schedule. In the second experiment, punishment of cocaine seeking was introduced after 12 additional days of either 1 or 6 h daily access to cocaine self-administration. In both experiments, beginning 1 week before the introduction of punishment, a subset of rats had concurrent nose poke access to sucrose while seeking or taking cocaine.

Results: The presence of an alternative source of reinforcement markedly facilitated behavioural reallocation from punished cocaine taking after acquisition. It also facilitated punishment-induced suppression of cocaine seeking after an extensive cocaine self-administration history likely by prompting goal-directed motivational control over drug use. However, a significant proportion of rats were deemed compulsive-maintaining drug use after an extensive cocaine history despite the presence of abstinence-promoting positive and negative incentives.

Conclusion: Making available an alternative reinforcer facilitates disengagement from punished cocaine use through at least two different processes but remains ineffective in a subpopulation of vulnerable animals, which continued to seek cocaine despite the aversive consequence of punishment and the presence of the alternative positive reinforcer.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

a The timeline of experiment 2. Early loading phase (first hour) during free access sessions (b). Number of cycles completed before (baseline) and during punishment of cocaine seeking responding after 12 days of 1 h (ShA white dots) or 6 h (LgA black dots) cocaine access without (c) or with (d) the availability of sucrose following a nose poke response. e The number of nose poke responses for sucrose under baseline and punishment of cocaine seeking. Average ± SEM of 17 to 37 animals per group. *Differences between groups, Tukey’s HSD; p < 0.05, p < 0.05
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Fig3: a The timeline of experiment 2. Early loading phase (first hour) during free access sessions (b). Number of cycles completed before (baseline) and during punishment of cocaine seeking responding after 12 days of 1 h (ShA white dots) or 6 h (LgA black dots) cocaine access without (c) or with (d) the availability of sucrose following a nose poke response. e The number of nose poke responses for sucrose under baseline and punishment of cocaine seeking. Average ± SEM of 17 to 37 animals per group. *Differences between groups, Tukey’s HSD; p < 0.05, p < 0.05

Mentions: During the short- or long-access cocaine self-administration phase, the time of drug availability differentially affected drug intake during the first hour [session × history F(11,1111) = 3.8; p < 0.0001] independently of the future condition animals would experience [session × history × condition F(11,111) = 1.5; NS] (Fig. 3a). The amount of cocaine self-administered was similar in all groups during the first session [F(3,101) = 2; NS] whereas rats with only 1 h daily access to cocaine (ShA) showed a stable and controlled pattern of consumption across sessions (F < 1), and daily access to 6 h of cocaine (LgA) resulted in a gradual escalation across sessions during their first hour [F(11,605) = 14; p < 0.001] regardless of the condition they would experience subsequently [session × condition F(11,605) = 1.6; NS] (Fig. 3a).Fig. 3


Differential vulnerability to the punishment of cocaine related behaviours: effects of locus of punishment, cocaine taking history and alternative reinforcer availability.

Pelloux Y, Murray JE, Everitt BJ - Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (2014)

a The timeline of experiment 2. Early loading phase (first hour) during free access sessions (b). Number of cycles completed before (baseline) and during punishment of cocaine seeking responding after 12 days of 1 h (ShA white dots) or 6 h (LgA black dots) cocaine access without (c) or with (d) the availability of sucrose following a nose poke response. e The number of nose poke responses for sucrose under baseline and punishment of cocaine seeking. Average ± SEM of 17 to 37 animals per group. *Differences between groups, Tukey’s HSD; p < 0.05, p < 0.05
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4281358&req=5

Fig3: a The timeline of experiment 2. Early loading phase (first hour) during free access sessions (b). Number of cycles completed before (baseline) and during punishment of cocaine seeking responding after 12 days of 1 h (ShA white dots) or 6 h (LgA black dots) cocaine access without (c) or with (d) the availability of sucrose following a nose poke response. e The number of nose poke responses for sucrose under baseline and punishment of cocaine seeking. Average ± SEM of 17 to 37 animals per group. *Differences between groups, Tukey’s HSD; p < 0.05, p < 0.05
Mentions: During the short- or long-access cocaine self-administration phase, the time of drug availability differentially affected drug intake during the first hour [session × history F(11,1111) = 3.8; p < 0.0001] independently of the future condition animals would experience [session × history × condition F(11,111) = 1.5; NS] (Fig. 3a). The amount of cocaine self-administered was similar in all groups during the first session [F(3,101) = 2; NS] whereas rats with only 1 h daily access to cocaine (ShA) showed a stable and controlled pattern of consumption across sessions (F < 1), and daily access to 6 h of cocaine (LgA) resulted in a gradual escalation across sessions during their first hour [F(11,605) = 14; p < 0.001] regardless of the condition they would experience subsequently [session × condition F(11,605) = 1.6; NS] (Fig. 3a).Fig. 3

Bottom Line: The availability of alternative reinforcement has been shown to reduce drug use, but it remains unclear whether it facilitates a reduction or cessation of drug seeking or taking.We compared the effects of punishment of cocaine seeking or taking behaviour after brief or extended cocaine-taking histories when behavioural reallocation was facilitated or not by making available an alternative ingestive reinforcer (sucrose).In the first experiment, punishment of either seeking or taking responses was introduced immediately after training on the seeking-taking chained schedule.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institut de Neuroscience de la Timone, UMR 7289, CNRS Aix-Marseille Université, Marseille, France, yann.pelloux@univ-amu.fr.

ABSTRACT

Background: The availability of alternative reinforcement has been shown to reduce drug use, but it remains unclear whether it facilitates a reduction or cessation of drug seeking or taking.

Objectives: We compared the effects of punishment of cocaine seeking or taking behaviour after brief or extended cocaine-taking histories when behavioural reallocation was facilitated or not by making available an alternative ingestive reinforcer (sucrose).

Methods: In the first experiment, punishment of either seeking or taking responses was introduced immediately after training on the seeking-taking chained schedule. In the second experiment, punishment of cocaine seeking was introduced after 12 additional days of either 1 or 6 h daily access to cocaine self-administration. In both experiments, beginning 1 week before the introduction of punishment, a subset of rats had concurrent nose poke access to sucrose while seeking or taking cocaine.

Results: The presence of an alternative source of reinforcement markedly facilitated behavioural reallocation from punished cocaine taking after acquisition. It also facilitated punishment-induced suppression of cocaine seeking after an extensive cocaine self-administration history likely by prompting goal-directed motivational control over drug use. However, a significant proportion of rats were deemed compulsive-maintaining drug use after an extensive cocaine history despite the presence of abstinence-promoting positive and negative incentives.

Conclusion: Making available an alternative reinforcer facilitates disengagement from punished cocaine use through at least two different processes but remains ineffective in a subpopulation of vulnerable animals, which continued to seek cocaine despite the aversive consequence of punishment and the presence of the alternative positive reinforcer.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus