Limits...
Mechanosensory molecules and circuits in C. elegans.

Schafer WR - Pflugers Arch. (2014)

Bottom Line: Mechanosensory neurons, whose activity is controlled by mechanical force, underlie the senses of touch, hearing, and proprioception, yet despite their importance, the molecular basis of mechanotransduction is poorly understood.Genetic studies in Caenorhabditis elegans have provided a useful approach for identifying potential components of mechanotransduction complexes that might be conserved in more complex organisms.In addition, the roles of genes encoding known and potential mechanosensory receptors, including members of the broadly conserved transient receptor potential (TRP) and degerin/epithelial Na(+) channel (DEG/ENaC) channel families, are discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Cell Biology Division, MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Francis Crick Avenue, Cambridge, CB2 0QH, UK, wschafer@mrc-lmb.cam.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT
Mechanosensory neurons, whose activity is controlled by mechanical force, underlie the senses of touch, hearing, and proprioception, yet despite their importance, the molecular basis of mechanotransduction is poorly understood. Genetic studies in Caenorhabditis elegans have provided a useful approach for identifying potential components of mechanotransduction complexes that might be conserved in more complex organisms. This review describes the mechanosensory systems of C. elegans, including the sensory neurons and circuitry involved in body touch, nose touch, and proprioception. In addition, the roles of genes encoding known and potential mechanosensory receptors, including members of the broadly conserved transient receptor potential (TRP) and degerin/epithelial Na(+) channel (DEG/ENaC) channel families, are discussed.

Show MeSH
Sensory neurons and interneurons mediating escape responses to body touch. Shown are the connections between sensory neurons (circles), interneurons (rectangles), and motor neurons (octagons) involved in escape responses to body touch. Dotted lines indicate gap junctions; solid lines indicate chemical synapses (black lines are inferred to be excitatory, and gray lines are inferred to be inhibitory)
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4281349&req=5

Fig1: Sensory neurons and interneurons mediating escape responses to body touch. Shown are the connections between sensory neurons (circles), interneurons (rectangles), and motor neurons (octagons) involved in escape responses to body touch. Dotted lines indicate gap junctions; solid lines indicate chemical synapses (black lines are inferred to be excitatory, and gray lines are inferred to be inhibitory)

Mentions: The interneuronal circuitry required to generate escape responses to gentle and harsh touch has also been explored, primarily through cell ablation experiments [11, 74, 76, 53]. Escape behavior in C. elegans is linked to a network of five interneuron pairs: AVA, AVD, and AVE, which promote backward locomotion, and AVB and PVC, which promote forward locomotion (Fig. 1). Anterior gentle body touch triggers a switch from forward to backward locomotion; these reversals specifically require the AVD interneurons, which are electrically coupled to AVM (which is itself electrically coupled to the ALMs). Conversely, accelerated forward movement triggered by posterior gentle body touch requires the PVC neurons, which are electrically coupled to the PLMs. Escape responses to harsh touch require same set of neurons, with the addition of DVA which is specifically required for acceleration away from harsh tail touch [53]. Interestingly, this set of neurons corresponds exactly to the C. elegans rich club neurons, a network characterized by high degree of connection to other neurons and each other [69]. Thus, body touch information inputs directly into the major center for sensory integration and locomotion control in the worm.Fig. 1


Mechanosensory molecules and circuits in C. elegans.

Schafer WR - Pflugers Arch. (2014)

Sensory neurons and interneurons mediating escape responses to body touch. Shown are the connections between sensory neurons (circles), interneurons (rectangles), and motor neurons (octagons) involved in escape responses to body touch. Dotted lines indicate gap junctions; solid lines indicate chemical synapses (black lines are inferred to be excitatory, and gray lines are inferred to be inhibitory)
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4281349&req=5

Fig1: Sensory neurons and interneurons mediating escape responses to body touch. Shown are the connections between sensory neurons (circles), interneurons (rectangles), and motor neurons (octagons) involved in escape responses to body touch. Dotted lines indicate gap junctions; solid lines indicate chemical synapses (black lines are inferred to be excitatory, and gray lines are inferred to be inhibitory)
Mentions: The interneuronal circuitry required to generate escape responses to gentle and harsh touch has also been explored, primarily through cell ablation experiments [11, 74, 76, 53]. Escape behavior in C. elegans is linked to a network of five interneuron pairs: AVA, AVD, and AVE, which promote backward locomotion, and AVB and PVC, which promote forward locomotion (Fig. 1). Anterior gentle body touch triggers a switch from forward to backward locomotion; these reversals specifically require the AVD interneurons, which are electrically coupled to AVM (which is itself electrically coupled to the ALMs). Conversely, accelerated forward movement triggered by posterior gentle body touch requires the PVC neurons, which are electrically coupled to the PLMs. Escape responses to harsh touch require same set of neurons, with the addition of DVA which is specifically required for acceleration away from harsh tail touch [53]. Interestingly, this set of neurons corresponds exactly to the C. elegans rich club neurons, a network characterized by high degree of connection to other neurons and each other [69]. Thus, body touch information inputs directly into the major center for sensory integration and locomotion control in the worm.Fig. 1

Bottom Line: Mechanosensory neurons, whose activity is controlled by mechanical force, underlie the senses of touch, hearing, and proprioception, yet despite their importance, the molecular basis of mechanotransduction is poorly understood.Genetic studies in Caenorhabditis elegans have provided a useful approach for identifying potential components of mechanotransduction complexes that might be conserved in more complex organisms.In addition, the roles of genes encoding known and potential mechanosensory receptors, including members of the broadly conserved transient receptor potential (TRP) and degerin/epithelial Na(+) channel (DEG/ENaC) channel families, are discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Cell Biology Division, MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Francis Crick Avenue, Cambridge, CB2 0QH, UK, wschafer@mrc-lmb.cam.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT
Mechanosensory neurons, whose activity is controlled by mechanical force, underlie the senses of touch, hearing, and proprioception, yet despite their importance, the molecular basis of mechanotransduction is poorly understood. Genetic studies in Caenorhabditis elegans have provided a useful approach for identifying potential components of mechanotransduction complexes that might be conserved in more complex organisms. This review describes the mechanosensory systems of C. elegans, including the sensory neurons and circuitry involved in body touch, nose touch, and proprioception. In addition, the roles of genes encoding known and potential mechanosensory receptors, including members of the broadly conserved transient receptor potential (TRP) and degerin/epithelial Na(+) channel (DEG/ENaC) channel families, are discussed.

Show MeSH