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Change in walking for transport: a longitudinal study of the influence of neighbourhood disadvantage and individual-level socioeconomic position in mid-aged adults.

Turrell G, Hewitt B, Haynes M, Nathan A, Giles-Corti B - Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act (2014)

Bottom Line: The data were analysed using multilevel mixed-effects logistic and linear regression.WfT declined significantly over time as people aged and the declines were more precipitous for older persons.Each of these declines represents a significant challenge to public health advocates, urban designers, and planners in their attempts to keep people active and healthy in their later years of life.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Public Health and Social Work, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. g.turrell@qut.edu.au.

ABSTRACT

Background: Unlike leisure time physical activity, knowledge of the socioeconomic determinants of active transport is limited, research on this topic has produced mixed and inconsistent findings, and it remains unknown if peoples' engagement in active transport declines as they age. This longitudinal study examined relationships between neighbourhood disadvantage, individual-level socioeconomic position and walking for transport (WfT) during mid- and early old-age (40 - 70 years). Three questions were addressed: (i) which socioeconomic groups walk for transport, (ii) does the amount of walking change over time as people age, and (iii) is the change socioeconomically patterned?

Methods: The data come from the HABITAT study of physical activity, a bi-annual multilevel longitudinal survey of 11,036 residents of 200 neighbourhoods in Brisbane, Australia. At each wave (2007, 2009 and 2011) respondents estimated the duration (minutes) of WfT in the previous 7 days. Neighbourhood disadvantage was measured using a census-derived index comprising 17 different socioeconomic components, and individual-level socioeconomic position was measured using education, occupation, and household income. The data were analysed using multilevel mixed-effects logistic and linear regression.

Results: The odds of being defined as a 'never walker' were significantly lower for residents of disadvantaged neighbourhoods, but significantly higher for the less educated, blue collar employees, and members of lower income households. WfT declined significantly over time as people aged and the declines were more precipitous for older persons. Average minutes of WfT declined for all neighbourhoods and most socioeconomic groups; however, the declines were steeper for the retired and members of low income households.

Conclusions: Designing age-friendly neighbourhoods might slow or delay age-related declines in WfT and should be a priority. Steeper declines in WfT among residents of low income households may reflect their poorer health status and the impact of adverse socioeconomic exposures over the life course. Each of these declines represents a significant challenge to public health advocates, urban designers, and planners in their attempts to keep people active and healthy in their later years of life.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Plotting the association between minutes walking for transport in the previous week and occupation: 2007 - 20111.1The plot was produced using the regression estimates from Model 3 (interaction) in Table 5.
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Fig4: Plotting the association between minutes walking for transport in the previous week and occupation: 2007 - 20111.1The plot was produced using the regression estimates from Model 3 (interaction) in Table 5.

Mentions: Table 5 presents results for occupation and minutes WfT. Among the employed, there was no association between occupation and WfT: average number of minutes of WfT was similar for managers and professionals, white collar employees, and blue collar workers, and this pattern was observed before (Model 1) and after adjustment for other socioeconomic factors (Models 2 & 3). Moreover, there was no significant interaction between occupation, time, and WfT: between 2007 and 2011 the number of minutes of walking reported by respondents in each occupation category remained relatively stable. The results in Table 5 indicate that respondents outside of the paid workforce had a somewhat different walking profile than their employed counterparts. Compared with managers and professionals, respondents who nominated ‘home duties’ or ‘retired’ as their primary daily role walked an average of 11 (95% CI −21.2, −0.9) and 15 (95% CI −22.2, −6.9) minutes less in the previous week respectively (Model 1). These findings were largely unchanged after adjustment for neighbourhood disadvantage (Model 2) and education and household income (Model 3). There was no significant interaction between home duties, time, and WfT: for these respondents, average minutes of WfT remained largely unchanged between 2007 and 2011 (Figure 4). By contrast, average minutes of WfT among the retired declined markedly over the 5 year reference period: for the fully adjusted analyses, retired respondents in 2007 reported walking an average of 63 minutes in the previous week, 53 minutes in 2009, and 42 minutes in 2011.Table 5


Change in walking for transport: a longitudinal study of the influence of neighbourhood disadvantage and individual-level socioeconomic position in mid-aged adults.

Turrell G, Hewitt B, Haynes M, Nathan A, Giles-Corti B - Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act (2014)

Plotting the association between minutes walking for transport in the previous week and occupation: 2007 - 20111.1The plot was produced using the regression estimates from Model 3 (interaction) in Table 5.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4279959&req=5

Fig4: Plotting the association between minutes walking for transport in the previous week and occupation: 2007 - 20111.1The plot was produced using the regression estimates from Model 3 (interaction) in Table 5.
Mentions: Table 5 presents results for occupation and minutes WfT. Among the employed, there was no association between occupation and WfT: average number of minutes of WfT was similar for managers and professionals, white collar employees, and blue collar workers, and this pattern was observed before (Model 1) and after adjustment for other socioeconomic factors (Models 2 & 3). Moreover, there was no significant interaction between occupation, time, and WfT: between 2007 and 2011 the number of minutes of walking reported by respondents in each occupation category remained relatively stable. The results in Table 5 indicate that respondents outside of the paid workforce had a somewhat different walking profile than their employed counterparts. Compared with managers and professionals, respondents who nominated ‘home duties’ or ‘retired’ as their primary daily role walked an average of 11 (95% CI −21.2, −0.9) and 15 (95% CI −22.2, −6.9) minutes less in the previous week respectively (Model 1). These findings were largely unchanged after adjustment for neighbourhood disadvantage (Model 2) and education and household income (Model 3). There was no significant interaction between home duties, time, and WfT: for these respondents, average minutes of WfT remained largely unchanged between 2007 and 2011 (Figure 4). By contrast, average minutes of WfT among the retired declined markedly over the 5 year reference period: for the fully adjusted analyses, retired respondents in 2007 reported walking an average of 63 minutes in the previous week, 53 minutes in 2009, and 42 minutes in 2011.Table 5

Bottom Line: The data were analysed using multilevel mixed-effects logistic and linear regression.WfT declined significantly over time as people aged and the declines were more precipitous for older persons.Each of these declines represents a significant challenge to public health advocates, urban designers, and planners in their attempts to keep people active and healthy in their later years of life.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Public Health and Social Work, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. g.turrell@qut.edu.au.

ABSTRACT

Background: Unlike leisure time physical activity, knowledge of the socioeconomic determinants of active transport is limited, research on this topic has produced mixed and inconsistent findings, and it remains unknown if peoples' engagement in active transport declines as they age. This longitudinal study examined relationships between neighbourhood disadvantage, individual-level socioeconomic position and walking for transport (WfT) during mid- and early old-age (40 - 70 years). Three questions were addressed: (i) which socioeconomic groups walk for transport, (ii) does the amount of walking change over time as people age, and (iii) is the change socioeconomically patterned?

Methods: The data come from the HABITAT study of physical activity, a bi-annual multilevel longitudinal survey of 11,036 residents of 200 neighbourhoods in Brisbane, Australia. At each wave (2007, 2009 and 2011) respondents estimated the duration (minutes) of WfT in the previous 7 days. Neighbourhood disadvantage was measured using a census-derived index comprising 17 different socioeconomic components, and individual-level socioeconomic position was measured using education, occupation, and household income. The data were analysed using multilevel mixed-effects logistic and linear regression.

Results: The odds of being defined as a 'never walker' were significantly lower for residents of disadvantaged neighbourhoods, but significantly higher for the less educated, blue collar employees, and members of lower income households. WfT declined significantly over time as people aged and the declines were more precipitous for older persons. Average minutes of WfT declined for all neighbourhoods and most socioeconomic groups; however, the declines were steeper for the retired and members of low income households.

Conclusions: Designing age-friendly neighbourhoods might slow or delay age-related declines in WfT and should be a priority. Steeper declines in WfT among residents of low income households may reflect their poorer health status and the impact of adverse socioeconomic exposures over the life course. Each of these declines represents a significant challenge to public health advocates, urban designers, and planners in their attempts to keep people active and healthy in their later years of life.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus