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The role of predation and food limitation on claims for compensation, reindeer demography and population dynamics.

Tveraa T, Stien A, Brøseth H, Yoccoz NG - J Appl Ecol (2014)

Bottom Line: Conversely, previous research has suggested that monetary predator compensation can result in positive population growth in the husbandry, with cascading negative effects of high grazer densities on the biodiversity in tundra ecosystems.We utilized a long-term, large-scale data set to estimate the relative importance of lynx and wolverine predation and density-dependent and climatic food limitation on claims for losses, recruitment and population growth rates in Norwegian reindeer husbandry.Claims of losses increased with increasing predator densities, but with no detectable effect on population growth rates.Density-dependent and climatic effects on claims of losses, recruitment and population growth rates were much stronger than the effects of variation in lynx and wolverine densities.Synthesis and applications.We outline a potential path for conflict management which involves adaptive monitoring programmes, open access to data, herder involvement and development of management strategy evaluation (MSE) models to disentangle complex responses including multiple stakeholders and individual harvester decisions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Norwegian Institute for Nature Research (NINA), FRAM - High North Research Centre for Climate and the Environment NO-9296, Tromsø, Norway.

ABSTRACT

A major challenge in biodiversity conservation is to facilitate viable populations of large apex predators in ecosystems where they were recently driven to ecological extinction due to resource conflict with humans.Monetary compensation for losses of livestock due to predation is currently a key instrument to encourage human-carnivore coexistence. However, a lack of quantitative estimates of livestock losses due to predation leads to disagreement over the practice of compensation payments. This disagreement sustains the human-carnivore conflict.The level of depredation on year-round, free-ranging, semi-domestic reindeer by large carnivores in Fennoscandia has been widely debated over several decades. In Norway, the reindeer herders claim that lynx and wolverine cause losses of tens of thousands of animals annually and cause negative population growth in herds. Conversely, previous research has suggested that monetary predator compensation can result in positive population growth in the husbandry, with cascading negative effects of high grazer densities on the biodiversity in tundra ecosystems.We utilized a long-term, large-scale data set to estimate the relative importance of lynx and wolverine predation and density-dependent and climatic food limitation on claims for losses, recruitment and population growth rates in Norwegian reindeer husbandry.Claims of losses increased with increasing predator densities, but with no detectable effect on population growth rates. Density-dependent and climatic effects on claims of losses, recruitment and population growth rates were much stronger than the effects of variation in lynx and wolverine densities.Synthesis and applications. Our analysis provides a quantitative basis for predator compensation and estimation of the costs of reintroducing lynx and wolverine in areas with free-ranging semi-domestic reindeer. We outline a potential path for conflict management which involves adaptive monitoring programmes, open access to data, herder involvement and development of management strategy evaluation (MSE) models to disentangle complex responses including multiple stakeholders and individual harvester decisions.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Regression lines (red lines) and partial residuals for the relationship between log population size (Nt), herd body condition in the previous fall (Body cond), onset of spring (Spring), plant productivity (Plant Pr), population size of lynx and wolverine and (a–f) claimed loss of calves (<1 year); (g–l) claimed loss of adults (>1 year); (m–r) early recruitment and (s–x) population growth rate.
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fig02: Regression lines (red lines) and partial residuals for the relationship between log population size (Nt), herd body condition in the previous fall (Body cond), onset of spring (Spring), plant productivity (Plant Pr), population size of lynx and wolverine and (a–f) claimed loss of calves (<1 year); (g–l) claimed loss of adults (>1 year); (m–r) early recruitment and (s–x) population growth rate.

Mentions: The number of reindeer calves and adults claimed lost increased with increasing population size, decreasing herd body condition the previous autumn, late spring onset and decreasing plant productivity (Fig.2). Increasing lynx and wolverine populations also led to increased claims for compensation (Fig.2). On average, the estimated claims for losses increased with 87 calves (95% CI = 80·3, 94·0) and 14 adult reindeer (95% CI = 10·2, 18·5) per lynx family group (Appendix S1, Table A1 and A2). For wolverine, the corresponding figures were 66 calves (95% CI = 59·5, 73·6) and five adults (95% CI = 0·6, 9·2). Comparisons of standardized regression coefficients showed that the effect of population size was 4–6 and 9–29 times stronger than the effects of lynx and wolverine predation on claims for losses of calves and adults, respectively (Fig.3). The effect of herd body condition the previous autumn was 3–4 and 5–16 times stronger than the effects of predation on claims for losses of calves and adults, respectively (Fig.3). The effect of onset of spring was of similar magnitude as the estimated effects of predation on claims for losses of calves, and 3–10 times stronger than the effects of predation on claims for losses of adults (Fig.3). The effect of plant productivity was of similar magnitude as the effects of predation on claims for losses of calves, and 1–5 times stronger than the effects of predation on claims for losses of adults (Fig.3).


The role of predation and food limitation on claims for compensation, reindeer demography and population dynamics.

Tveraa T, Stien A, Brøseth H, Yoccoz NG - J Appl Ecol (2014)

Regression lines (red lines) and partial residuals for the relationship between log population size (Nt), herd body condition in the previous fall (Body cond), onset of spring (Spring), plant productivity (Plant Pr), population size of lynx and wolverine and (a–f) claimed loss of calves (<1 year); (g–l) claimed loss of adults (>1 year); (m–r) early recruitment and (s–x) population growth rate.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4279950&req=5

fig02: Regression lines (red lines) and partial residuals for the relationship between log population size (Nt), herd body condition in the previous fall (Body cond), onset of spring (Spring), plant productivity (Plant Pr), population size of lynx and wolverine and (a–f) claimed loss of calves (<1 year); (g–l) claimed loss of adults (>1 year); (m–r) early recruitment and (s–x) population growth rate.
Mentions: The number of reindeer calves and adults claimed lost increased with increasing population size, decreasing herd body condition the previous autumn, late spring onset and decreasing plant productivity (Fig.2). Increasing lynx and wolverine populations also led to increased claims for compensation (Fig.2). On average, the estimated claims for losses increased with 87 calves (95% CI = 80·3, 94·0) and 14 adult reindeer (95% CI = 10·2, 18·5) per lynx family group (Appendix S1, Table A1 and A2). For wolverine, the corresponding figures were 66 calves (95% CI = 59·5, 73·6) and five adults (95% CI = 0·6, 9·2). Comparisons of standardized regression coefficients showed that the effect of population size was 4–6 and 9–29 times stronger than the effects of lynx and wolverine predation on claims for losses of calves and adults, respectively (Fig.3). The effect of herd body condition the previous autumn was 3–4 and 5–16 times stronger than the effects of predation on claims for losses of calves and adults, respectively (Fig.3). The effect of onset of spring was of similar magnitude as the estimated effects of predation on claims for losses of calves, and 3–10 times stronger than the effects of predation on claims for losses of adults (Fig.3). The effect of plant productivity was of similar magnitude as the effects of predation on claims for losses of calves, and 1–5 times stronger than the effects of predation on claims for losses of adults (Fig.3).

Bottom Line: Conversely, previous research has suggested that monetary predator compensation can result in positive population growth in the husbandry, with cascading negative effects of high grazer densities on the biodiversity in tundra ecosystems.We utilized a long-term, large-scale data set to estimate the relative importance of lynx and wolverine predation and density-dependent and climatic food limitation on claims for losses, recruitment and population growth rates in Norwegian reindeer husbandry.Claims of losses increased with increasing predator densities, but with no detectable effect on population growth rates.Density-dependent and climatic effects on claims of losses, recruitment and population growth rates were much stronger than the effects of variation in lynx and wolverine densities.Synthesis and applications.We outline a potential path for conflict management which involves adaptive monitoring programmes, open access to data, herder involvement and development of management strategy evaluation (MSE) models to disentangle complex responses including multiple stakeholders and individual harvester decisions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Norwegian Institute for Nature Research (NINA), FRAM - High North Research Centre for Climate and the Environment NO-9296, Tromsø, Norway.

ABSTRACT

A major challenge in biodiversity conservation is to facilitate viable populations of large apex predators in ecosystems where they were recently driven to ecological extinction due to resource conflict with humans.Monetary compensation for losses of livestock due to predation is currently a key instrument to encourage human-carnivore coexistence. However, a lack of quantitative estimates of livestock losses due to predation leads to disagreement over the practice of compensation payments. This disagreement sustains the human-carnivore conflict.The level of depredation on year-round, free-ranging, semi-domestic reindeer by large carnivores in Fennoscandia has been widely debated over several decades. In Norway, the reindeer herders claim that lynx and wolverine cause losses of tens of thousands of animals annually and cause negative population growth in herds. Conversely, previous research has suggested that monetary predator compensation can result in positive population growth in the husbandry, with cascading negative effects of high grazer densities on the biodiversity in tundra ecosystems.We utilized a long-term, large-scale data set to estimate the relative importance of lynx and wolverine predation and density-dependent and climatic food limitation on claims for losses, recruitment and population growth rates in Norwegian reindeer husbandry.Claims of losses increased with increasing predator densities, but with no detectable effect on population growth rates. Density-dependent and climatic effects on claims of losses, recruitment and population growth rates were much stronger than the effects of variation in lynx and wolverine densities.Synthesis and applications. Our analysis provides a quantitative basis for predator compensation and estimation of the costs of reintroducing lynx and wolverine in areas with free-ranging semi-domestic reindeer. We outline a potential path for conflict management which involves adaptive monitoring programmes, open access to data, herder involvement and development of management strategy evaluation (MSE) models to disentangle complex responses including multiple stakeholders and individual harvester decisions.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus