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Dendritic cells during Staphylococcus aureus infection: subsets and roles.

Wu X, Xu F - J Transl Med (2014)

Bottom Line: Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that play a crucial role in both innate and adaptive immune responses.Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a common member of human skin microbiota and can cause severe infections with significant morbidity and mortality.Protective immunity to pathogens by DCs is required for clearance of S. aureus.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Infectious Diseases, Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, 310009, China. wuxuejie81@163.com.

ABSTRACT
Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that play a crucial role in both innate and adaptive immune responses. DCs orient the immune responses by modulating the balance between protective immunity to pathogens and tolerance to self-antigens. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a common member of human skin microbiota and can cause severe infections with significant morbidity and mortality. Protective immunity to pathogens by DCs is required for clearance of S. aureus. DCs sense the presence of the staphylococcal components using pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and then orchestrate immune systems to resolve infections. This review summarizes the possible roles of DCs, in particular their Toll-like receptors (TLRs) involved in S. aureus infection and strategies by which the pathogen affects activation and function of DCs.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Possible strategies ofS. aureusto affect DCs function. Several components of S. aureus may affect DCs function. Possible tactics used by S. aureus include killing DC directly, inhibiting Th1 responses, inducing Th2 and Treg responses as well as IL-10-producing B cells. Abbreviations: SEB, S. aureus enterotoxin B; TIM4, T cell immunoglobulin mucin domain (TIM) 4; LukAB, leukocidin A/B; PSMs, Phenol-soluble modulin; spA-SA, surface protein A-bearing S. aureus.
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Fig3: Possible strategies ofS. aureusto affect DCs function. Several components of S. aureus may affect DCs function. Possible tactics used by S. aureus include killing DC directly, inhibiting Th1 responses, inducing Th2 and Treg responses as well as IL-10-producing B cells. Abbreviations: SEB, S. aureus enterotoxin B; TIM4, T cell immunoglobulin mucin domain (TIM) 4; LukAB, leukocidin A/B; PSMs, Phenol-soluble modulin; spA-SA, surface protein A-bearing S. aureus.

Mentions: In vitro studies showed that bone marrow derived DCs of TLR9-/- mice produced significantly decreased IFN-β levels after incubation with S. aureus USA300 for 20 hours, compared to wildtype mice. However, TLR9-/- mice exerted enhanced clearance of S. aureus from the airways and lung tissue. Further analysis indicated that TNF may be related to the control of S. aureus infection because its level in BALF was reduced significantly in infected TLR9-/- while the other proinflammatory cytokines including IL-17, CXCL-10, KC, IL-6, and IFN-γ were unchanged, compared to controls [102]. This is consistent with the detrimental effect of TNF signaling on S. aureus pulmonary infection [103]. Parcina and colleagues showed that human pDCs activated by surface protein A-bearing S. aureus were involved in TLR9 signaling and mediated B cell proliferation and Ig production. Cooperation of pDCs and B cells enhanced B cell-derived IL-10 production of which was partially dependent on TLR2-active lipoproteins, a hallmark of the Staphylococcus species [104]. These results indicate that S. aureus may exploit pDCs and their TLRs to establish B cell-mediated immune tolerance to facilitate infection. Possible strategies of S. aureus to affect DCs function are delineated in Figure 3.Figure 3


Dendritic cells during Staphylococcus aureus infection: subsets and roles.

Wu X, Xu F - J Transl Med (2014)

Possible strategies ofS. aureusto affect DCs function. Several components of S. aureus may affect DCs function. Possible tactics used by S. aureus include killing DC directly, inhibiting Th1 responses, inducing Th2 and Treg responses as well as IL-10-producing B cells. Abbreviations: SEB, S. aureus enterotoxin B; TIM4, T cell immunoglobulin mucin domain (TIM) 4; LukAB, leukocidin A/B; PSMs, Phenol-soluble modulin; spA-SA, surface protein A-bearing S. aureus.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4279898&req=5

Fig3: Possible strategies ofS. aureusto affect DCs function. Several components of S. aureus may affect DCs function. Possible tactics used by S. aureus include killing DC directly, inhibiting Th1 responses, inducing Th2 and Treg responses as well as IL-10-producing B cells. Abbreviations: SEB, S. aureus enterotoxin B; TIM4, T cell immunoglobulin mucin domain (TIM) 4; LukAB, leukocidin A/B; PSMs, Phenol-soluble modulin; spA-SA, surface protein A-bearing S. aureus.
Mentions: In vitro studies showed that bone marrow derived DCs of TLR9-/- mice produced significantly decreased IFN-β levels after incubation with S. aureus USA300 for 20 hours, compared to wildtype mice. However, TLR9-/- mice exerted enhanced clearance of S. aureus from the airways and lung tissue. Further analysis indicated that TNF may be related to the control of S. aureus infection because its level in BALF was reduced significantly in infected TLR9-/- while the other proinflammatory cytokines including IL-17, CXCL-10, KC, IL-6, and IFN-γ were unchanged, compared to controls [102]. This is consistent with the detrimental effect of TNF signaling on S. aureus pulmonary infection [103]. Parcina and colleagues showed that human pDCs activated by surface protein A-bearing S. aureus were involved in TLR9 signaling and mediated B cell proliferation and Ig production. Cooperation of pDCs and B cells enhanced B cell-derived IL-10 production of which was partially dependent on TLR2-active lipoproteins, a hallmark of the Staphylococcus species [104]. These results indicate that S. aureus may exploit pDCs and their TLRs to establish B cell-mediated immune tolerance to facilitate infection. Possible strategies of S. aureus to affect DCs function are delineated in Figure 3.Figure 3

Bottom Line: Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that play a crucial role in both innate and adaptive immune responses.Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a common member of human skin microbiota and can cause severe infections with significant morbidity and mortality.Protective immunity to pathogens by DCs is required for clearance of S. aureus.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Infectious Diseases, Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, 310009, China. wuxuejie81@163.com.

ABSTRACT
Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that play a crucial role in both innate and adaptive immune responses. DCs orient the immune responses by modulating the balance between protective immunity to pathogens and tolerance to self-antigens. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a common member of human skin microbiota and can cause severe infections with significant morbidity and mortality. Protective immunity to pathogens by DCs is required for clearance of S. aureus. DCs sense the presence of the staphylococcal components using pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and then orchestrate immune systems to resolve infections. This review summarizes the possible roles of DCs, in particular their Toll-like receptors (TLRs) involved in S. aureus infection and strategies by which the pathogen affects activation and function of DCs.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus