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Effects of surface-modifying ligands on the colloidal stability of ZnO nanoparticle dispersions in in vitro cytotoxicity test media.

Kwon D, Park J, Park J, Choi SY, Yoon TH - Int J Nanomedicine (2014)

Bottom Line: The results showed that ZnO NPs were better dispersed in cell culture media via surface modification with positively or negatively charged molecules.Moreover, in the presence of fetal bovine serum (FBS) in RPMI and DMEM media, ZnO NPs were found even better dispersed for a longer period (at least 48 hours).This confirmed the important roles of surface-modifying compounds and of surface charge on the resultant cytotoxicities of NPs.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Nanoscale Characterization and Environmental Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul, South Korea.

ABSTRACT
The extrinsic physicochemical properties of nanoparticles (NPs), such as hydrodynamic size, surface charge, surface functional group, and colloidal stabilities, in toxicity testing media are known to have a significant influence on in vitro toxicity assessments. Therefore, interpretation of nanotoxicity test results should be based on reliable characterization of the NPs' extrinsic properties in actual toxicity testing media. Here, we present a set of physicochemical characterization results for commercially available ZnO NPs, including core diameter, hydrodynamic diameter, surface charges, and colloidal stabilities, in two in vitro toxicity testing media (Roswell Park Memorial Institute [RPMI] and Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium [DMEM]), as well as simple cell viability assay results for selected ZnO NPs. Four commercially available and manufactured ZnO NPs, with different core sizes, were used in this study, and their surface charge was modified with five different surface coating materials (sodium citrate, tris(2-aminoethyl)amine, poly(acrylic acid), poly(allylamine hydrochloride), and poly-L-lysine hydrochloride). The results showed that ZnO NPs were better dispersed in cell culture media via surface modification with positively or negatively charged molecules. Moreover, in the presence of fetal bovine serum (FBS) in RPMI and DMEM media, ZnO NPs were found even better dispersed for a longer period (at least 48 hours). For the HeLa cells exposed to ZnO NPs in DMEM media without FBS, surface charge-dependent cytotoxicity trends were observed, while these trends were not observed for those cells cultured in FBS-containing media. This confirmed the important roles of surface-modifying compounds and of surface charge on the resultant cytotoxicities of NPs.

No MeSH data available.


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Hydrodynamic diameter distributions of (A) ZnOAA20(PAA) and ZnOAA20(PLL), (B) ZnOSM20(PAA) and ZnOSM20(PLL), and (C) ZnOAE100(PAA) and ZnOAE100(PLL), after 30-hour exposures to DMEM media containing FBS.Abbreviations: FBS, fetal bovine serum, DMEM, Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium; PAA, poly(acrylic acid); PLL, poly-L-lysine hydrochloride; ZnOAA20(PAA), PAA-coated, 20 nm ZnO; ZnOAA20(PLL), PLL-coated, 20 nm ZnO; ZnOAE100(PAA), PAA-coated, <100 nm ZnO; ZnOAE100(PLL), PLL-coated, <100 nm ZnO; ZnOSM20(PAA), PAA-coated, 10–35 nm ZnO; ZnOSM20(PLL), PLL-coated, 10–35 nm ZnO.
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f5-ijn-9-057: Hydrodynamic diameter distributions of (A) ZnOAA20(PAA) and ZnOAA20(PLL), (B) ZnOSM20(PAA) and ZnOSM20(PLL), and (C) ZnOAE100(PAA) and ZnOAE100(PLL), after 30-hour exposures to DMEM media containing FBS.Abbreviations: FBS, fetal bovine serum, DMEM, Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium; PAA, poly(acrylic acid); PLL, poly-L-lysine hydrochloride; ZnOAA20(PAA), PAA-coated, 20 nm ZnO; ZnOAA20(PLL), PLL-coated, 20 nm ZnO; ZnOAE100(PAA), PAA-coated, <100 nm ZnO; ZnOAE100(PLL), PLL-coated, <100 nm ZnO; ZnOSM20(PAA), PAA-coated, 10–35 nm ZnO; ZnOSM20(PLL), PLL-coated, 10–35 nm ZnO.

Mentions: To examine the effect of the toxicity test medium, we prepared ZnO NPs in RPMI and DMEM media. As shown in Figures 2A, 2B, and 2C, when exposed to RPMI with FBS, the ZnO (ie, uncoated ZnOAA20, ZnOAA20(PAA), and ZnOAA20(PLL)) NPs showed slow sedimentation over 48 hours, while rapid sedimentation of ZnO in DMEM with FBS was observed after 24 hours (Figure 3A–C), and the hydrodynamic size distributions of suspended particles were maintained in the range of 200–420 nm (Figure 5). Similar results were seen in our previous studies,15 in which 70 nm TiO2 NPs were more dispersed in RPMI than in DMEM media with FBS. These observations indicate that physicochemical properties of the media, such as higher ionic strength (169 mM for DMEM versus 152 mM for RPMI) and greater quantity of inorganic components (in DMEM),23 may be responsible for the differences in NP stability. Additionally, differences in the organic components of the media play key roles in determining the colloidal stability of NPs in aqueous environments.


Effects of surface-modifying ligands on the colloidal stability of ZnO nanoparticle dispersions in in vitro cytotoxicity test media.

Kwon D, Park J, Park J, Choi SY, Yoon TH - Int J Nanomedicine (2014)

Hydrodynamic diameter distributions of (A) ZnOAA20(PAA) and ZnOAA20(PLL), (B) ZnOSM20(PAA) and ZnOSM20(PLL), and (C) ZnOAE100(PAA) and ZnOAE100(PLL), after 30-hour exposures to DMEM media containing FBS.Abbreviations: FBS, fetal bovine serum, DMEM, Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium; PAA, poly(acrylic acid); PLL, poly-L-lysine hydrochloride; ZnOAA20(PAA), PAA-coated, 20 nm ZnO; ZnOAA20(PLL), PLL-coated, 20 nm ZnO; ZnOAE100(PAA), PAA-coated, <100 nm ZnO; ZnOAE100(PLL), PLL-coated, <100 nm ZnO; ZnOSM20(PAA), PAA-coated, 10–35 nm ZnO; ZnOSM20(PLL), PLL-coated, 10–35 nm ZnO.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4279775&req=5

f5-ijn-9-057: Hydrodynamic diameter distributions of (A) ZnOAA20(PAA) and ZnOAA20(PLL), (B) ZnOSM20(PAA) and ZnOSM20(PLL), and (C) ZnOAE100(PAA) and ZnOAE100(PLL), after 30-hour exposures to DMEM media containing FBS.Abbreviations: FBS, fetal bovine serum, DMEM, Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium; PAA, poly(acrylic acid); PLL, poly-L-lysine hydrochloride; ZnOAA20(PAA), PAA-coated, 20 nm ZnO; ZnOAA20(PLL), PLL-coated, 20 nm ZnO; ZnOAE100(PAA), PAA-coated, <100 nm ZnO; ZnOAE100(PLL), PLL-coated, <100 nm ZnO; ZnOSM20(PAA), PAA-coated, 10–35 nm ZnO; ZnOSM20(PLL), PLL-coated, 10–35 nm ZnO.
Mentions: To examine the effect of the toxicity test medium, we prepared ZnO NPs in RPMI and DMEM media. As shown in Figures 2A, 2B, and 2C, when exposed to RPMI with FBS, the ZnO (ie, uncoated ZnOAA20, ZnOAA20(PAA), and ZnOAA20(PLL)) NPs showed slow sedimentation over 48 hours, while rapid sedimentation of ZnO in DMEM with FBS was observed after 24 hours (Figure 3A–C), and the hydrodynamic size distributions of suspended particles were maintained in the range of 200–420 nm (Figure 5). Similar results were seen in our previous studies,15 in which 70 nm TiO2 NPs were more dispersed in RPMI than in DMEM media with FBS. These observations indicate that physicochemical properties of the media, such as higher ionic strength (169 mM for DMEM versus 152 mM for RPMI) and greater quantity of inorganic components (in DMEM),23 may be responsible for the differences in NP stability. Additionally, differences in the organic components of the media play key roles in determining the colloidal stability of NPs in aqueous environments.

Bottom Line: The results showed that ZnO NPs were better dispersed in cell culture media via surface modification with positively or negatively charged molecules.Moreover, in the presence of fetal bovine serum (FBS) in RPMI and DMEM media, ZnO NPs were found even better dispersed for a longer period (at least 48 hours).This confirmed the important roles of surface-modifying compounds and of surface charge on the resultant cytotoxicities of NPs.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Nanoscale Characterization and Environmental Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul, South Korea.

ABSTRACT
The extrinsic physicochemical properties of nanoparticles (NPs), such as hydrodynamic size, surface charge, surface functional group, and colloidal stabilities, in toxicity testing media are known to have a significant influence on in vitro toxicity assessments. Therefore, interpretation of nanotoxicity test results should be based on reliable characterization of the NPs' extrinsic properties in actual toxicity testing media. Here, we present a set of physicochemical characterization results for commercially available ZnO NPs, including core diameter, hydrodynamic diameter, surface charges, and colloidal stabilities, in two in vitro toxicity testing media (Roswell Park Memorial Institute [RPMI] and Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium [DMEM]), as well as simple cell viability assay results for selected ZnO NPs. Four commercially available and manufactured ZnO NPs, with different core sizes, were used in this study, and their surface charge was modified with five different surface coating materials (sodium citrate, tris(2-aminoethyl)amine, poly(acrylic acid), poly(allylamine hydrochloride), and poly-L-lysine hydrochloride). The results showed that ZnO NPs were better dispersed in cell culture media via surface modification with positively or negatively charged molecules. Moreover, in the presence of fetal bovine serum (FBS) in RPMI and DMEM media, ZnO NPs were found even better dispersed for a longer period (at least 48 hours). For the HeLa cells exposed to ZnO NPs in DMEM media without FBS, surface charge-dependent cytotoxicity trends were observed, while these trends were not observed for those cells cultured in FBS-containing media. This confirmed the important roles of surface-modifying compounds and of surface charge on the resultant cytotoxicities of NPs.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus